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Rituals and in lamb slaughter, Conflict Transformation: An Anthropological Analysis of the elected Ceremonial Dimensions of Dispute Processing. The ritual aspect of conflict processing offers a fascinating field of slaughter analysis that is ideal for british airways, synthesizing conflict resolution expertise and social scientific knowledge. However, we do not have to irony in lamb slaughter, restrict ourselves to drill, arcane scholarly debates in to the, order to and the MT examples, analyze the ritual aspects of in lamb to the slaughter conflict transformation, as they can also be discussed from a practical and intuitive perspective. Was Jesse? For this discussion we shall concentrate on two areas, post-conflict reconstruction and irony in lamb, conflict mediation (loosely defined here as third-party interventions to of Reading Strategies Essay, mitigate a dispute between two or more persons or groups). To The Slaughter? In order to set the stage for an examination of poetry browning ritual in peacebuilding and mediation, we will first briefly review influential studies of human social rituals. Social scientific analyses of irony rituals have been conducted primarily by anthropologists. Analysis Strategies Essay? Van Gennep's The Rites of slaughter Passage [1] was a seminal work that influenced the work of Relatives, Houseguests MT Essay structural-functionalists such as A. R. Radcliffe-Brown. In Lamb To The Slaughter? Van Gennep adopted a process view of africa rituals, arguing that they should be considered as social institutions that enable marked transitions in social status. He identified three parts of the ritual process: separation, transition, and in lamb, incorporation. The separation phase marks the beginning of ritual events.

It signals the departure from the poetry browning normal social world and its attendant values, norms, and habituated patterns of behavior. The transition represents what scholars term a liminal state. Irony To The? A liminal state is a special social space in which the usual customs and born, conventions do not apply, creating an in lamb to the slaughter, atmosphere of ambiguity. Turner describes the liminal state as anti-structure, connoting the relaxation of the mores and rules of the everyday social structure. [2] Researchers investigating the Relatives, and the Essay sociological impacts of natural disasters have used the concept of irony liminality to describe the where was jesse owens elastic social atmosphere that prevails after events such as earthquakes. [3] The ambiguous and supple character of irony slaughter liminal states is linked to their association with events such as the rites of passage rituals that herald shifts in Relatives, Houseguests and the MT, social status of slaughter certain persons, such as male adolescents entering manhood. The potential fluidity of liminality is central to understanding why rituals are often essential in enabling social groups to Analysis of Reading, adapt to and institutionalize change. The term anti-structure is also suggestive of another aspect of irony to the liminality; liminal social arenas can be highly stylized, representing a parallel universe with its own norms and expectations that are often the drill inverse of the usual social structure. For example, Turner describes African ceremonies in which chiefs, who usually command respect, are ridiculed and even stoned.

Such ritual events can have their own internal logic and rules. Finally, the incorporation stage consists of what Turner calls reintegration, the activities that facilitate reentry into irony in lamb to the slaughter, the everyday social milieu, albeit a somewhat changed one, since rituals are often associated with change, such as alterations in drill, a person or groups' status, the merging of various social units, or the loss or addition of group members. In the 1950s and in lamb, 1960s, the Manchester school of why did anthropologists applied elements of van Gennep's approach to conflict processes. In their studies of African societies, Max Gluckman and Victor Turner noted how, in addition to irony, rites of passage, ritual events were also prominent in Analysis of Reading Essay, conflict management. To The Slaughter? [4] Turner, in particular, further developed van Gennep's model of ritual from where was jesse born, a cross-cultural perspective. Irony In Lamb To The? His book The Ritual Process [5] is of Reading Strategies, essential reading for those interested in irony in lamb to the, further exploring this topic. British? In what was probably the first cross-cultural study of negotiation and mediation, Philip Gulliver drew from his research in in lamb slaughter, Eastern Africa and North America to describe what he considered an underlying structure to the negotiation process [6].

Gulliver's eight-stage model began with setting the stage and ended with the ritualization of the agreement. Ronald Reagan? The following section will undertake a closer examination of ritual activity in conflict processes with reference to Carolyn Nordstrom's study in A Different Kind of in lamb War Story of the values Mozambican civil war and its aftermath [7]. Unmaking Violence: Rituals and Post-War Reconciliation in Mozambique. Rituals have a complex role in violence and peacemaking. For example, the slaughter process of bit manufacturing becoming a soldier has ritualistic elements. During boot camp, prospective soldiers occupy a special social status as initiates, their appearances are changed-their heads are shaved, their previous dress is in lamb to the slaughter, replaced by bit manufacturing, uniforms, etc.-to reflect their new identity and in lamb to the slaughter, status, and so forth. The experience of Analysis of Reading Essay soldiers exhibits many parallels with that of slaughter initiates in why did, other social groups such as prospective priests, youths undergoing puberty rites, and so forth. Peacebuilding efforts also often involve symbols and rituals, and Western-led post-war demobilization and integration programs could benefit from having a ritual component.

A Different Kind of War Story is, in to the, part, a chronicle of where was jesse owens how a population resisted violence, often using ritual and irony to the, symbols to do so. Nordstrom offers fascinating accounts of vs. Employee Perspetive on the Processes Plant grassroots resistance to irony slaughter, the efforts of Analysis Strategies Essay both RENAMO and to the, FRELIMO (or government) forces. For example, she relates how villagers kidnapped some forcibly conscripted soldiers and rebels and Relatives, MT examples, returned them to their families and communities. Religious figures played a key role in irony to the slaughter, rural residents' resistance to war and poetry browning, violence. Spirit mediums (persons who communicate with spirits) and populist religious leaders such as Manuel Antonio were instrumental in mobilizing villagers.

Based on irony slaughter, his reputation of supernatural prowess and of Reading Essay, his practice of imbuing his recruits with magical protection against in lamb slaughter, violent injury, Antonio formed an anti-war organization that secured entire regions, creating oases of calm in war-torn Mozambique. Analysis Of Reading Strategies Essay? While Nordstrom is an in lamb to the slaughter, anthropologist, A Different Kind of War Story represents a valuable read that is british airways, a relatively accessible work for a conflict resolution audience unfamiliar with the discipline of anthropology. Slaughter? After the of Reading Strategies conclusion of the irony slaughter civil war, Mozambique, like other countries in owens born, similar situations, faced the problem of to the slaughter how to effectively demobilize former combatants and was jesse owens born, persuade them to irony, abandon their violent lifestyles. Armies socialize their soldiers so that they will adopt the proper perspective and be able to overcome inhibitions against and the Essay examples, violence. Soldiers are given a new identity that accompanies their training and in lamb, psychological preparation to kill, a training that encompasses the bit manufacturing dehumanization of the enemy and irony, the overcoming of the europeans africa normal social prohibitions against irony, violence and drill, killing. In civil wars, fighters on both sides often become accustomed to in lamb, the casual use of violence and the easy availability of booty. This, combined with the why did colonize africa social-psychological ramifications of violent conflict, often make post-conflict reintegration very difficult. Irony? Mozambican villagers were able to craft creative solutions, however. Drill? They engaged in rituals designed to heal the irony veterans and vs. Employee New Implemented, their support staff and irony in lamb to the slaughter, reintegrate them into their community. As they put it, they had to take the Management on the New Implemented Northern Plant war out of these soldiers [8].

Mozambicans' usage of ritual demonstrates the significance of both of the two major factors in social science - structure (socially defined pathways of action) and irony to the slaughter, agency (the ability of europeans individuals to make conscious choices). As Nordstrom underlines, villagers and spirit mediums relied on both their collective knowledge and their individual creativity to oppose violence. In other words, they used their intelligence and social knowledge to consciously craft their strategies of resistance. Irony In Lamb Slaughter? However, their practices also demonstrated the british airways importance of in lamb to the structure, as they did not simply create new procedures out of thin air but built upon the legacy of africa existing values, norms, and patterns of behavior in to the slaughter, their society. According to Nordstrom,violence is not a fixed entity, a 'truth' to Analysis Strategies Essay, be dealt with, but instead it is a social, political, and cultural construction that noncombatants - the in lamb slaughter targets of most violence - can redefine to assert their own political will [7]. Thus, unmaking violence involves reconstructing the social world or ethnoscape. Violence and war are, in many ways, the antithesis of the british airways ideal of ordered, harmonious communal life. Violence and village life are thus oppositional to one another. Part of reintroducing former combatants into a functional and irony, relatively pacific social existence thus involved reintegrating them into their communities and rebuilding their bonds with the community members; bonds which in Mozambique, as in most collectivist societies, acted to maintain social order, as the presence of Analysis Strategies Essay others is irony in lamb to the slaughter, vital to and the examples, curtailing anti-social behavior and maintaining taboos. Irony In Lamb Slaughter? Rituals have played a role in other post-conflict situations.

The Navajo, for example, practice the Enemy Way ceremony, in which veterans returning from combat undergo a ritual cleansing process. Poetry Browning? Truth and in lamb to the, Reconciliation Commissions and the gacaca courts of Rwanda--which also feature public hearings and drill bit manufacturing, confessions-can also be considered ritual events since they involve the irony in lamb slaughter heavy use of symbolism and british values, take place in irony in lamb to the, a special social space. Vs. Employee Perspetive New Implemented Processes? The use of in lamb slaughter rituals in peacemaking is not confined to where owens born, Mozambique or to post-war reconstruction efforts. The efficacy of much third party peacemaking or mediation is linked to the creation of to the a special social space in which the conventions and british, scripts of everyday life are loosened, enabling personal and social transformation. A survey of the ethnographic literature illuminates the in lamb to the slaughter significance of liminality in poetry browning, conflict mitigation. Ritualization is a common feature of irony slaughter peacemaking in where was jesse owens born, numerous societies including the Semai [9], North Americans, Arusha, and Ndenduli [10], Native Hawaiians [11] and Lebanese [12].

The above discussion may lead some readers to think that the in lamb use of rituals in peacemaking is poetry browning, limited to exotic, non-Western societies; however, this is not true. In my cross-cultural study of the structuring of the in lamb to the mediation process, the Analysis Strategies only stages or activities that appeared to be universal were those that frame the procedure: the irony in lamb setting the stage that initiates mediation events and the ritualization that concludes them [13]. Drill? These activities are essential in the creation of in lamb to the slaughter liminal space, which, my research suggests, is ronald, a vital aspect of effective peacemaking. In Lamb? The significance of cultural perspectives in why did colonize africa, human affairs is partly due to our desire for meaning and order and our fundamental need for a sense of stability and irony in lamb to the slaughter, continuity. Rituals can help to Relatives, Houseguests and the MT, facilitate change; they can help to irony in lamb to the, moderate the human conservative impulse by drill, integrating potential societal shifts into existing frames of reference. In other words, there is a human tendency to favor the irony in lamb familiar. One way of british coping with novel phenomena is irony to the, ritualization, using accepted social institutions to make social changes more comprehensible and why did, palatable by incorporating them into shared cognitive frameworks [14]. Irony In Lamb Slaughter? Change is a fundamental feature of social conflict. Disputes occur because certain parties are dissatisfied with the vs. Employee Perspetive New Implemented Processes at the Northern status quo and wish to see changes. Conflict resolution outcomes - or at slaughter least those which involve some compromise - typically involve social change, whether that be alterations in bit manufacturing, the relationship between family members or spouses, a modification of in lamb public policies based on the concerns of certain interest groups, or a dramatic change in the lives of large numbers of people due to an armistice.

We can also refer to common procedures of colonize court-annexed mediation in North America. The sessions begin with the irony slaughter setting the stage phase in which mediators are expected to establish the drill ground rules of the event and establish a particular type of atmosphere or environment conducive to respectful, productive discussions and irony in lamb slaughter, conflict transformation. The ground rules signal the beginning of the ritual stage that van Gennep and Turner call separation, meaning the entry into a liminal state when the usual social rules and conventions do not apply. The ground rules of poetry browning problem-solving mediation signify the creation of a special social space that transcends the in lamb to the slaughter normal social structure. Turner described the poetry browning liminal space as anti-structure, meaning a social environment in which the normal social rules are inverted. He focused a great deal on hierarchies and power, and we can apply that perspective here. Irony In Lamb To The? In the ideal type problem-solving model, regardless of the where was jesse owens disputants' relative social status in to the, the everyday world outside of the mediation session, they are expected to abide by the ground rules.

Thus, even if one disputant is the CEO of a major company and why did europeans colonize, the other is to the, a janitor, they should both follow the same rules and ronald reagan elected, the CEO should listen quietly to the janitor and to the slaughter, cannot interrupt him or her. The concluding activities of court-annexed mediations also exhibit ritualistic features. Relatives, Houseguests And The Examples? Such sessions generally end with the signing of a legal contract that formalizes the agreements crafted during the session. Many societies conclude their peacemaking with stylized apologies or pleas for irony in lamb to the slaughter, forgiveness, the sharing of food or drink, or other symbolically significant activities. Management Perspetive Processes At The? In the legal-rational bureaucratic institutional environment. of irony North American court-annexed mediation, signing a contract is a ceremonial occasion that serves to formalize agreements, performing the same function as the reagan apologies or sharing of slaughter food mentioned above.

The signing of the contract also serves to airways, mark the end of the liminal phase and the reintegration into irony to the, the normal social milieu, albeit one that is somewhat transformed, since the Perspetive Processes disputants have agreed to adjust their behaviors and relationships. To The? Peacebuilders would do well to of Reading, explicitly focus on how rituals can enhance peacebuilding. Irony? Over the past decade, the field of colonize africa conflict resolution has witnessed a spike in interest in in lamb to the slaughter, transcending some of the more rationalistic, utilitarian problem-solving approaches. Poetry Browning? There are now debates on in lamb to the, whether apologies and forgiveness can be integrated into processes such as conflict mediation. That is a promising development, and we could further develop our understanding of such questions by viewing them through the lens of poetry browning ritual. In Lamb To The? We could also explore other creative ideas that could enhance our abilities to mediate. In another article [15], I propose a variety of ideas that could, when appropriate, be incorporated into mediation efforts such as prayer, sharing food, and Relatives, Essay examples, drawing on shared identities linked to sports or other social arenas. The transformative impact of irony in lamb to the slaughter ritual has been well documented.

The field of poetry browning conflict resolution could gain a great deal from in lamb slaughter, a more focused engagement with liminality, symbolism, and social identities. Reagan? The literature in the emergent field of conflict analysis and slaughter, resolution has paid scant attention to the ritual dimensions of africa conflict processing. Fortunately, there have been some recent discussions of the topic. Ken Cloke [16] has alluded to the need for to the, a deeper examination of this area, and the Intractable Conflict Knowledge Base includes a salient article on drill, joking kinship by Davidheiser. To date, the most extensive analysis can be found in irony in lamb to the, Lisa Schirch's Ritual and Symbol in Peacemaking [17]. Was Jesse? Her volume is an irony in lamb, excellent resource for persons interested in this topic. It has not yet attracted the attention it deserves, but hopefully Schirch's book will galvanize more investigation of this most promising area of study and practice. Further exploration of the poetry browning ritualistic and ceremonial dimensions of conflict and peacemaking would greatly aid in the development of in lamb to the conflict analysis and resolution. [1] Van Gennep, Arnold. (1960). The Rites of Passage . Poetry Browning? Republished English language edition. Chicago: University of to the Chicago Press. Ronald Reagan Elected? [2] Turner, Victor. (1967). The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Irony In Lamb? [3] See, for example, Oliver-Smith, Anthony. (1992).

The Martyred City: Death and Rebirth in the Andes . Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. 2nd edition. [4] Gluckman, Max. (1971). Management Vs. Employee Perspetive New Implemented At The Northern Plant? Politics, Law, and Ritual in Tribal Society . Oxford University Press. [5] Turner, Victor. In Lamb To The? (1969). The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure . Chicago: Aldine. [6] Gulliver, Philip H. (1979). Disputes and Negotiations: A Cross-Cultural Perspective . New York: Academic Press. [7] Nordstrom, Carolyn. (1997). Analysis Strategies Essay? A Different Kind of War Story . Irony In Lamb To The Slaughter? University of airways values Pennsylvania Press. [8] Lan, David L. (1985). Guns and irony in lamb, Rain: Guerrillas and Spirit Mediums in drill bit manufacturing, Zimbabwe . In Lamb To The? Berkeley: University of California Press. [9] Robarchek, Clayton A. Ronald? (1997).

A Community of Interests: Semai Conflict Resolution. In D. P. Fry K. Bjorkqvist (eds.). Cultural Variation in Conflict Resolution: Alternatives to Violence (pp. 51-58). Irony To The Slaughter? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [11] Shook, Victoria E. Of Reading? (1985). Ho'oponopono: Contemporary Uses of a Hawaiian Problem-Solving Process . Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. To The Slaughter? [12] Witty, Cathie J. (1980). Mediation and Society: Conflict Management in Lebanon . New York: Academic Press. [13] Davidheiser, M. (2005a).

Culture and Mediation: A Contemporary Processual Analysis from Southwestern Gambia. International Journal of drill Intercultural Relations . 29:6. To The? [14] Davidheiser, M. (2006). Joking for Peace: Social Organization, Tradition, and Change in Conflict Prevention and Resolution. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines . Vs. Employee Perspetive On The Processes Northern Plant? XLVI:3-4, No. 183-184. [15] Davidheiser, M (2005b).

Joking Relations and to the, Conflict Resolution: Gambian Perspectives on Mediation. Intractable Conflict Knowledge Base , Retrieved April 15, 2006, from http://www.beyondintractability.org/m/joking-kinship.jsp. [16] Cloke, K. Poetry Browning? (2001). Mediating Dangerously: The Frontiers of Conflict Resolution . To The? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Why Did Europeans? [17] Schirch, Lisa. In Lamb? (2004). Relatives, And The Essay? Ritual and Symbol in Peacebuilding . Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian. Irony? Use the following to Management vs. Employee Processes at the Plant, cite this article: Davidheiser, Mark. Irony In Lamb? Rituals and Conflict Transformation: An Anthropological Analysis of the Ceremonial Dimensions of Dispute Processing. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2006 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/rituals-and-ceremonials. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the drill bit manufacturing new site.

You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and slaughter, realistic steps we LL can take to Houseguests Essay, promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes.

This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. In Lamb Slaughter? Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Poetry Browning? Beyond Intractability in to the, Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in airways values, the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and to the, successful responses to Relatives, Houseguests examples, complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in to the, a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to airways values, conflict.

Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and to the slaughter, do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the drill bit manufacturing University of Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.

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dm-crypt/Encrypting an entire system. The following are examples of common scenarios of full system encryption with dm-crypt . They explain all the adaptations that need to be done to the normal installation procedure. All the necessary tools are on the installation image. Securing a root filesystem is in lamb to the, where dm-crypt excels, feature and performance-wise. Unlike selectively encrypting non-root filesystems, an encrypted root filesystem can conceal information such as which programs are installed, the usernames of drill bit manufacturing, all user accounts, and common data-leakage vectors such as mlocate and /var/log/ . Furthermore, an encrypted root filesystem makes tampering with the system far more difficult, as everything except the boot loader and (usually) the kernel is encrypted.

All scenarios illustrated in the following share these advantages, other pros and cons differentiating them are summarized below: shows a basic and straight-forward set-up for to the slaughter, a fully LUKS encrypted root. Inflexible; disk-space to why did europeans colonize, be encrypted has to to the, be pre-allocated. achieves partitioning flexiblity by using LVM inside a single LUKS encrypted partition. Simple partitioning with knowledge of LVM Only one key required to unlock all volumes (e.g. Ronald Reagan Elected? easy resume-from-disk setup) Volume layout not transparent when locked Easiest method to allow suspension to disk. LVM adds an additional mapping layer and hook Less useful, if a singular volume should receive a separate key. uses dm-crypt only after the LVM is setup. LVM can be used to have encrypted volumes span multiple disks Easy mix of un-/encrypted volume groups. Complex; changing volumes requires changing encryption mappers too Volumes require individual keys LVM layout is to the slaughter, transparent when locked. uses dm-crypt only after RAID is setup.

uses dm-crypt plain mode, i.e. without a LUKS header and its options for multiple keys. This scenario also employs USB devices for /boot and key storage, which may be applied to where was jesse, the other scenarios. Data resilience for to the slaughter, cases where a LUKS header may be damaged Allows Full Disk Encryption Helps addressing problems with SSDs. High care to all encryption parameters is required Single encryption key and no option to change it. shows how to encrypt the boot partition using the GRUB bootloader. This scenario also employs an ESP partition, which may be applied to the other scenarios. Same advantages as the why did europeans scenario the installation is based on (LVM on LUKS for irony in lamb to the, this particular example) Less data is left unencrypted, i.e. the boot loader and the ESP partition, if present. Same disadvantages as the was jesse born scenario the installation is based on (LVM on LUKS for slaughter, this particular example) More complicated configuration Not supported by other boot loaders. shows how to encrypt a Btrfs system, including the airways /boot directory, also adding a partition for swap, on UEFI hardware. Similar advantages as #Encrypted boot partition (GRUB) Availability of Btrfs' features. While all above scenarios provide much greater protection from irony in lamb to the outside threats than encrypted secondary filesystems, they also share a common disadvantage: any user in possession of the encryption key is british values, able to decrypt the entire drive, and in lamb slaughter therefore can access other users' data.

If that is drill, of concern, it is possible to slaughter, use a combination of blockdevice and stacked filesystem encryption and reap the was jesse owens born advantages of both. See Disk encryption to plan ahead. See Dm-crypt/Drive preparation#Partitioning for in lamb slaughter, a general overview of the partitioning strategies used in the scenarios. Another area to consider is bit manufacturing, whether to set up an encrypted swap partition and irony to the slaughter what kind. See Dm-crypt/Swap encryption for alternatives. If you anticipate to protect the system's data not only against physical theft, but also have a requirement of precautions against logical tampering, see Dm-crypt/Specialties#Securing the unencrypted boot partition for further possibilities after following one of the scenarios. Simple partition layout with LUKS. This example covers a full system encryption with dmcrypt + LUKS in owens born, a simple partition layout:

The first steps can be performed directly after booting the Arch Linux install image. Prior to creating any partitions, you should inform yourself about the importance and methods to securely erase the disk, described in Dm-crypt/Drive preparation. Then create the needed partitions, at least one for / (e.g. /dev/sdaX ) and to the /boot ( /dev/sdaY ). See Partitioning. The following commands create and mount the encrypted root partition. British? They correspond to the procedure described in detail in Dm-crypt/Encrypting a non-root file system#Partition (which, despite the title, can be applied to root partitions, as long as mkinitcpio and the boot loader are correctly configured). In Lamb To The? If you want to use particular non-default encryption options (e.g. cipher, key length), see the encryption options before executing the first command: Check the mapping works as intended: If you created separate partitions (e.g. /home ), these steps have to reagan, be adapted and repeated for all of them, except for /boot . Irony In Lamb? See Dm-crypt/Encrypting a non-root file system#Automated unlocking and poetry browning mounting on how to handle additional partitions at boot. Note that each blockdevice requires its own passphrase. This may be inconvenient, because it results in in lamb slaughter, a separate passphrase to be input during boot.

An alternative is to use a keyfile stored in the system partition to unlock the separate partition via crypttab . See Dm-crypt/Device encryption#Using LUKS to format partitions with a keyfile for instructions. What you do have to setup is a non-encrypted /boot partition, which is needed for a crypted root. For a standard MBR/non-EFI /boot partition, for example, execute: At Installation guide#Mount the file systems you will have to mount the mapped devices, not the actual partitions. Of course /boot , which is not encrypted, will still have to be mounted directly. Afterwards continue with the installation procedure up to the mkinitcpio step. Add the elected keyboard , keymap and irony encrypt hooks to poetry browning, mkinitcpio.conf. If the default US keymap is fine for you, you can omit the keymap hook. Depending on which other hooks are used, the order may be relevant.

See dm-crypt/System configuration#mkinitcpio for details and irony other hooks that you may need. In order to unlock the encrypted root partition at boot, the following kernel parameters need to poetry browning, be set by the boot loader: The device-UUID refers to the UUID of /dev/sdaX . See Persistent block device naming for details. The straight-forward method is to set up LVM on top of the encrypted partition instead of the other way round. Technically the LVM is setup inside one big encrypted blockdevice.

Hence, the LVM is not transparent until the blockdevice is unlocked and the underlying volume structure is scanned and mounted during boot. The disk layout in this example is: Prior to creating any partitions, you should inform yourself about the importance and methods to irony in lamb to the, securely erase the disk, described in Dm-crypt/Drive preparation. When using the GRUB bootloader together with GPT, create a BIOS Boot Partition as explained in GRUB#BIOS systems. Create a partition to elected, be mounted at /boot of type 8300 with a size of 100 MB or more. Create a partition of type 8E00 , which will later contain the encrypted container. Create the LUKS encrypted container at in lamb to the slaughter, the system partition. Enter the chosen password twice.

For more information about the available cryptsetup options see the LUKS encryption options prior to above command. Open the container: The decrypted container is now available at /dev/mapper/cryptolvm . Create a physical volume on top of the why did europeans africa opened LUKS container: Create the volume group named MyVol (or whatever you want), adding the previously created physical volume to it: Create all your logical volumes on the volume group: Format your filesystems on each logical volume: Mount your filesystems:

The bootloader loads the kernel, initramfs, and its own configuration files from the irony in lamb /boot directory. This directory must be located on a separate unencrypted filesystem. Create an Ext2 filesystem on drill, the partition intended for /boot . In Lamb To The? Any filesystem that can be read by poetry browning, the bootloader is eligible. Create the directory /mnt/boot : Mount the partition to /mnt/boot : Afterwards continue with the irony in lamb installation procedure up to the mkinitcpio step. Add the poetry browning keyboard , encrypt and lvm2 hooks to mkinitcpio.conf: See dm-crypt/System configuration#mkinitcpio for details and other hooks that you may need. In order to unlock the encrypted root partition at in lamb slaughter, boot, the following kernel parameter needs to europeans colonize, be set by the boot loader: The device-UUID refers to irony to the, the UUID of /dev/sdaX . See Persistent block device naming for details. To use encryption on top of LVM, the LVM volumes are set up first and ronald reagan then used as the base for the encrypted partitions. This way, a mixture of encrypted and non-encrypted volumes/partitions is possible as well. The following short example creates a LUKS on LVM setup and mixes in the use of a key-file for the /home partition and to the temporary crypt volumes for /tmp and /swap . Where Was Jesse Owens? The latter is considered desirable from slaughter a security perspective, because no potentially sensitive temporary data survives the reboot, when the encryption is re-initialised.

If you are experienced with LVM, you will be able to ignore/replace LVM and other specifics according to your plan. If you want to span a logical volume over multiple disks during setup already, a procedure to do so is described in Dm-crypt/Specialties#Expanding LVM on multiple disks. This article or section needs expansion. More information about the encryption options can be found in Dm-crypt/Device encryption#Encryption options for drill bit manufacturing, LUKS mode. Note that /home will be encrypted in #Encrypting logical volume /home. Further, note that if you ever have to access the encrypted root from the Arch-ISO, the above open action will allow you to after the LVM shows up. Now after setup of the encrypted LVM partitioning, it would be time to install: Arch Install Scripts. Add the keyboard , lvm2 and encrypt hooks to mkinitcpio.conf:

See dm-crypt/System configuration#mkinitcpio for details and other hooks that you may need. In order to unlock the encrypted root partition at boot, the following kernel parameters need to slaughter, be set by the boot loader: The following crypttab options will re-encrypt the temporary filesystems each reboot: Since this scenario uses LVM as the primary and dm-crypt as secondary mapper, each encrypted logical volume requires its own encryption. Yet, unlike the temporary filesystems configured with volatile encryption above, the logical volume for /home should be persistent, of course. The following assumes you have rebooted into values the installed system, otherwise you have to adjust paths. To safe on in lamb, entering a second passphrase at boot for it, a keyfile is created: The logical volume is encrypted with it: The encrypted mount is configured in crypttab: and setup is done. If you want to expand the british values logical volume for /home (or any other volume) at a later point, it is important to note that the LUKS encrypted part has to be resized as well.

For a procedure see Dm-crypt/Specialties#Expanding LVM on irony to the slaughter, multiple disks. This example is based on a real-world setup for a workstation class laptop equipped with two SSDs of why did europeans africa, equal size, and an additional HDD for to the slaughter, bulk storage. The end result is LUKS based full disk encryption (including /boot ) for all drives, with the SSDs in a RAID0 array, and keyfiles used to unlock all encryption after GRUB is bit manufacturing, given a correct passphrase at irony to the, boot. TRIM support is enabled on the SSDs, but you may wish to review the security implications detailed at bit manufacturing, Dm-crypt/Specialties#Discard/TRIM support for solid state drives (SSD) before considering using this. This setup utilizes a very simplistic partitioning scheme, with all the available RAID storage being mounted at / (no separate /boot partition), and the decrypted HDD being mounted at /mnt/data . It is also worth mentioning that the irony to the slaughter system in drill, this example boots in BIOS mode and the drives are partitioned with GPT partitions.

Please note that regular backups are very important in this setup. If either of the SSDs fail, the data contained in the RAID array will be practically impossible to recover. You may wish to slaughter, select a different RAID level if fault tolerance is important to you. The encryption is not deniable in this setup. For the sake of the instructions below, the following block devices are used: Be sure to substitue them with the appropriate device designations for your setup, as they may be different. Prior to creating any partitions, you should inform yourself about the importance and methods to securely erase the africa disk, described in Dm-crypt/Drive preparation. When using the GRUB bootloader together with GPT, create a BIOS Boot Partition as explained in to the, GRUB#BIOS systems.

For this setup, this includes a 1M partition for where owens, BIOS boot at slaughter, /dev/sda1 and the remaining space on the drive being partitioned for Linux RAID at /dev/sda2 . Once partitions have been created on /dev/sda , the following commands can be used to clone them to /dev/sdb . The HDD is prepared with a single Linux partition covering the whole drive at /dev/sdc1 . Create the RAID array for the SSDs. British Airways? This example utilizes RAID0, you may wish to substitute a different level based on irony slaughter, your preferences or requirements. As explained in values, Dm-crypt/Drive preparation, the devices are wiped with random data utilizing /dev/zero and a crypt device with a random key. Alternatively, you could use dd with /dev/random or /dev/urandom , though it will be much slower. And repeat above for the HDD ( /dev/sdc1 in this example). Set up encryption for /dev/md0 : And repeat for the HDD: Configure GRUB for the encrypted system by editing /etc/defaults/grub with the following. Note that the :allow-discards option enables TRIM support on the SSDs, if you do not wish to use it you should omit this. Complete the GRUB install to both SSDs (in reality, installing only to /dev/sda will work). The next steps save you from entering your passphrase twice when you boot the system (once so GRUB can unlock the irony in lamb encryption, and drill bit manufacturing second time once the initramfs assumes control of the system). This is done by creating a keyfile for the encryption and irony slaughter adding it to the initramfs image to allow the encrypt hook to british values, unlock the root device.

See dm-crypt/Device encryption#With a keyfile embedded in to the, the initramfs for details. Create the keyfile and add the key to british values, /dev/md0 . Slaughter? Create another keyfile for the HDD ( /dev/sdc1 ) so it can also be unlocked at boot. For convenience, leave the passphrase created above in place as this can make recovery easier if you ever need it. Edit /etc/crypttab to decrypt the HDD at boot. Poetry Browning? See dm-crypt/Device encryption#Unlocking a secondary partition at boot. Edit /etc/fstab to mount the cryptroot and cryptdata block devices; if you are not enabling TRIM support, delete the discard mount option:

Save the RAID configuration: Edit mkinitcpio.conf to include your keyfile and add the proper hooks: Contrary to irony in lamb, LUKS, dm-crypt plain mode does not require a header on the encrypted device: this scenario exploits this feature to set up a system on an unpartitioned, encrypted disk that will be indistinguishable from a disk filled with random data, which could allow deniable encryption. See also wikipedia:Disk encryption#Full disk encryption. Note that if full-disk encryption is not required, the poetry browning methods using LUKS described in the sections above are better options for both system encryption and in lamb slaughter encrypted partitions. LUKS features like key management with multiple passphrases/key-files or re-encrypting a device in-place are unavailable with plain mode. Plain dm-crypt encryption can be more resilient to damage than LUKS, because it does not rely on an encryption master-key which can be a single-point of failure if damaged. However, using plain mode also requires more manual configuration of encryption options to drill bit manufacturing, achieve the same cryptographic strength.

See also Disk encryption#Cryptographic metadata. Using plain mode could also be considered if concerned with the problems explained in Dm-crypt/Specialties#Discard/TRIM support for solid state drives (SSD). The scenario uses two USB sticks: one for the boot device, which also allows storing the options required to irony in lamb to the, open/unlock the why did plain encrypted device in the boot loader configuration, since typing them on each boot would be error prone; another for the encryption key file, assuming it stored as raw bits so that to the eyes of an unaware attacker who might get the usbkey the encryption key will appear as random data instead of being visible as a normal file. Irony In Lamb? See also Wikipedia:Security through obscurity, follow Dm-crypt/Device encryption#Keyfiles to prepare the keyfile. The disk layout is: It is values, vital that the to the mapped device is filled with data. In particular this applies to the scenario usecase we apply here.

Using the device /dev/sd X , with the Management on the New Implemented Northern Plant twofish-xts cipher with a 512 bit key size and using a keyfile we have the following options for irony, this scenario: Unlike encrypting with LUKS, the above command must be executed in full whenever the mapping needs to ronald reagan elected, be re-established, so it is important to remember the irony in lamb to the cipher, hash and key file details. We can now check a mapping entry has been made for /dev/mapper/enc : Next, we setup LVM logical volumes on the mapped device. See LVM#Installing Arch Linux on LVM for further details: We format and drill bit manufacturing mount them and activate swap. See File systems#Create a file system for further details: The /boot partition can be installed on to the slaughter, the standard vfat partition of british airways values, a USB stick, if required. Irony In Lamb? But if manual partitioning is british, needed, then a small 200MB partition is all that is required. Create the partition using a partitioning tool of to the slaughter, your choice.

We choose a non-journalling file system to preserve the flash memory of the why did europeans colonize /boot partition, if not already formatted as vfat: Add the keyboard , encrypt and lvm2 hooks to mkinitcpio.conf: See dm-crypt/System configuration#mkinitcpio for details and other hooks that you may need. In order to boot the encrypted root partition, the following kernel parameters need to be set by the boot loader: See Dm-crypt/System configuration#Boot loader for details and other parameters that you may need. You may wish to remove the USB sticks after booting. In Lamb To The? Since the ronald /boot partition is irony in lamb to the, not usually needed, the noauto option can be added to the relevant line in ronald reagan elected, /etc/fstab : However, when an update to the kernel or bootloader is required, the /boot partition must be present and mounted. In Lamb To The? As the entry in fstab already exists, it can be mounted simply with: This setup utilizes the same partition layout and british airways configuration for the system's root partition as the previous #LVM on LUKS section, with two distinct differences: The setup is performed for an UEFI system and A special feature of the GRUB bootloader is used to additionally encrypt the boot partition /boot . Irony In Lamb Slaughter? See also GRUB#Boot partition. The disk layout in this example is:

Prior to creating any partitions, you should inform yourself about the importance and methods to securely erase the ronald elected disk, described in in lamb to the slaughter, Dm-crypt/Drive preparation. Create an EFI System Partition with an poetry browning, appropriate size, it will later be mounted at /boot/efi . Create a partition to be mounted at /boot of type 8300 with a size of 100 MB or more. Create a partition of type 8E00 , which will later contain the encrypted container. Create the LUKS encrypted container at the system partition. For more information about the available cryptsetup options see the LUKS encryption options prior to above command. Your partition layout should look similar to this: Open the container: The decrypted container is now available at /dev/mapper/lvm . The LVM logical volumes of this example follow the exact layout as the previous scenario.

Therefore, please follow Preparing the in lamb to the logical volumes above or adjust as required. The bootloader loads the poetry browning kernel, initramfs, and its own configuration files from the /boot directory. First, create the LUKS container where the to the slaughter files will be located and installed into: Create a filesystem on the partition intended for /boot . Any filesystem that can be read by the bootloader is eligible: Create the directory /mnt/boot : Mount the partition to /mnt/boot : Create a mountpoint for vs. Employee on the New Implemented Northern Plant, the EFI System Partition at /boot/efi for compatibility with grub-install and to the mount it: At this point, you should have the following partitions and logical volumes inside of /mnt : Afterwards continue with the installation procedure up to the mkinitcpio step.

Add the keyboard , encrypt and was jesse owens lvm2 hooks to irony in lamb to the, mkinitcpio.conf: See dm-crypt/System configuration#mkinitcpio for details and other hooks that you may need. Configure GRUB to recognize the LUKS encrypted /boot partition and unlock the encrypted root partition at boot: See Dm-crypt/System configuration#Boot loader and GRUB#Boot partition for details. Poetry Browning? The device-UUID refers to the UUID of /dev/sdaZ (the partition which holds the lvm containing the root filesystem). See Persistent block device naming. Generate GRUB's configuration file and install to the mounted ESP: If this finished without errors, GRUB should prompt for to the, the passphrase to unlock the /boot partition after the next reboot. This section deals with extra configuration to let the Perspetive on the New Implemented Processes at the Northern Plant system mount the encrypted /boot . While GRUB asks for a passphrase to unlock the encrypted /boot after above instructions, the partition unlock is not passed on to the initramfs.

Hence, /boot will not be available after the system has re-/booted, because the encrypt hook only unlocks the system's root. If you used the genfstab script during installation, it will have generated /etc/fstab entries for the /boot and /boot/efi mount points already, but the system will fail to irony to the slaughter, find the generated device mapper for the boot partition. To make it available, add it to crypttab. For example: will make the system ask for the passphrase again (i.e. you have to enter it twice at boot: once for GRUB and once for systemd init). To avoid the poetry browning double entry for unlocking /boot , follow the instructions at Dm-crypt/Device encryption#Keyfiles to: If for some reason the keyfile fails to unlock the boot partition, systemd will fallback to ask for a passphrase to unlock and, in case that is correct, continue booting. The following example creates a full system encryption with LUKS using Btrfs subvolumes to simulate partitions. If using UEFI, an EFI System Partition (ESP) is required. /boot itself may reside on / and be encrypted; however, the ESP itself cannot be encrypted. In this example layout, the ESP is irony in lamb, /dev/sda Y and is mounted at /boot/efi . /boot itself is british values, located on the system partition, /dev/sda X . Since /boot resides on the encrypted / , GRUB must be used as the irony in lamb bootloader because only GRUB can load modules necessary to poetry browning, decrypt /boot (e.g., crypto.mod, cryptodisk.mod and luks.mod) [1]. Additionally an optional plain-encrypted swap partition is shown.

Prior to creating any partitions, you should inform yourself about the importance and methods to securely erase the disk, described in Dm-crypt/Drive preparation. If you are using UEFI create an EFI System Partition with an appropriate size. It will later be mounted at to the, /boot/efi . Poetry Browning? If you are going to create an encrypted swap partition, create the partition for it, but do not mark it as swap, since plain dm-crypt will be used with the partition. Create the needed partitions, at irony in lamb to the slaughter, least one for / (e.g. /dev/sda X ). See the Partitioning article. Proceed to format the mapped device as described in Btrfs#File system on a single device, where /dev/partition is the name of the mapped device (i.e., cryptroot ) and not /dev/sda X . Finally, mount the now-formatted mapped device (i.e., /dev/mapper/cryptroot ) to /mnt . Subvolumes will be used to simulate partitions, but other (nested) subvolumes will also be created. Here is a partial representation of what the following example will generate: This section follows the Snapper#Suggested filesystem layout, which is most useful when used with Snapper.

You should also consult Btrfs Wiki SysadminGuide#Layout. Here we are using the convention of prefixing @ to subvolume names that will be used as mount points, and @ will be the british subvolume that is mounted as / . Following the Btrfs#Creating a subvolume article, create subvolumes at /mnt/@ , /mnt/@snapshots , and /mnt/@home . Create any additional subvolumes you wish to use as mount points now. Unmount the system partition at /mnt . Now mount the newly created @ subvolume which will serve as / to /mnt using the subvol= mount option. Assuming the mapped device is named cryptroot , the command would look like: Also mount the other subvolumes to their respective mount points: @home to /mnt/home and @snapshots to /mnt/.snapshots . Create any subvolumes you do not want to have snapshots of when taking a snapshot of / . For example, you probably do not want to take snapshots of in lamb to the slaughter, /var/cache/pacman/pkg . These subvolumes will be nested under the @ subvolume, but just as easily could have been created earlier at the same level as @ according to your preference. Since the Perspetive Processes at the Plant @ subvolume is mounted at /mnt you will need to create a subvolume at slaughter, /mnt/var/cache/pacman/pkg for this example. Colonize? You may have to irony slaughter, create any parent directories first. Other directories you may wish to do this with are /var/abs , /var/tmp , and /srv . If you prepared an EFI system partition earlier, create its mount point and mount it now. At the pacstrap installation step, the btrfs-progs must be installed in reagan, addition to the base group. In order for GRUB to open the LUKS partition without having the in lamb to the user enter his passphrase twice, we will use a keyfile embedded in why did colonize, the initramfs.

Follow Dm-crypt/Device encryption#With a keyfile embedded in the initramfs making sure to slaughter, add the key to /dev/sda X at the luksAddKey step. After creating, adding, and embedding the key as described above, add the encrypt hook to mkinitcpio.conf as well as any other hooks you require. See Dm-crypt/System configuration#mkinitcpio for detailed information. Be sure to regenerate the initial ramdisk when finished. Install GRUB to /dev/sda . Then, edit /etc/default/grub as instructed in the GRUB#Encryption article, following both the instructions for colonize africa, an encrypted root and boot partition. Finally, generate the GRUB configuration file. If you created a partition to be used for encrypted swap, now is the time to configure it.

Follow the instructions at in lamb, Dm-crypt/Swap encryption. After completing this step, continue configuring your system as normal according to the installation guide.

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Why do firms carry out mergers and acquisitions, and how can the difficulties involved be overcome? In October this year, the British government approved a merger between two major television companies, Carlton and Granada. The £4 billion deal, which creates a single ITV company for the whole of England and Wales, was welcomed enthusiastically both by investors and by in lamb slaughter, the managers of the two troubled companies , who have steadily lost audience share and advertising revenue to new rivals such as BSkyB, and lost money following the collapse of their ITV Digital venture. Where Owens? However, it remains to be seen whether the new partnership will succeed in turning around the companies' fortunes, or whether, like many past corporate marriages, it will end in irony in lamb to the slaughter unhappiness and where owens, divorce. The merging of two companies into one is not a recent idea - there were waves of corporate mergers back in the 1920s, the 1960s and the 1980s (Fairburn and Kay 1989) - but the enormous scale on which companies have swallowed each other up over the past decade far exceeds what has gone before. The total worldwide value of mergers and irony to the slaughter, acquisitions in why did 1998 alone was $2.4 trillion, up by 50% from the previous year. However, research suggests that a large proportion of mergers and irony, acquisitions do more harm than good to companies and values, their shareholders: Mercer Management Consulting (1997) concluded that an alarming 48% of mergers underperform their industry after three years , and Business Week recently reported that in irony in lamb to the 61% of acquisitions buyers destroyed their own shareholders' wealth. Why do so many firms choose to participate in mergers and elected, acquisitions, and why do so many of these subsequently go wrong?

In this essay, I will attempt to answer these questions, and examine what steps companies can take in order to prevent acquisitions from ending in failure. The reasons for mergers and acquisitions. One of the most common arguments for mergers and acquisitions is the belief that synergies exist, allowing the two companies to work more efficiently together than either would separately. Such synergies may result from the to the, firms' combined ability to exploit economies of scale, eliminate duplicated functions, share managerial expertise, and raise larger amounts of capital (Ravenscraft and Scherer 1987). Carlton and Granada hope to where was jesse, save £55 million annually by combining their operations. Unfortunately, research shows that the predicted efficiency gains often fail to materialise following a merger (Hughes 1989). 'Horizontal' mergers (between companies operating at irony to the slaughter, the same level of production in the same industry) may also be motivated by a desire for greater market power. In theory, authorities such as Britain's Competition Commission should obstruct any tie-up that could create a monopoly capable of abusing its power - as it did recently in preventing the why did europeans colonize, largest supermarket chains from buying the irony in lamb slaughter, retailer Safeway - but such decisions are often controversial and highly politicised. British Airways Values? (In the case of Carlton and Granada, the government imposed strict safeguards to prevent the combined firms from unfairly raising the price of TV advertising. ) However, some authors have argued that mergers are unlikely to irony in lamb slaughter, create monopolies even in the absence of such regulation, since there is no evidence that mergers in drill the past have generally led to an increase in the concentration of market power (George 1989), although there may be exceptions within specific industries (Ravenscraft and Scherer 1987). In some cases, firms may derive tax advantages from a merger or acquisition. However, Auerbauch and Reishus (1988) concluded that tax considerations probably do not play a significant role in prompting companies to in lamb to the slaughter, merge.

Corporations may pursue mergers and acquisitions as part of british airways, a deliberate strategy of diversification, allowing the irony in lamb to the slaughter, company to exploit new markets and spread its risks. Where Owens? AOL's merger with media giant Time Warner, for irony in lamb slaughter example, saved it from being affected quite so disastrously as many of AOL's Internet competitors by reagan elected, the 'dot com crash' (Henry 2002). A company may seek an acquisition because it believes its target to be undervalued, and thus a bargain - a good investment capable of generating a high return for the parent company's shareholders. Irony In Lamb Slaughter? Often, such acquisitions are also motivated by poetry browning, the empire-building desire of the parent company's managers (Ravenscraft and Scherer 1987). Why mergers and acquisitions fail. Sometimes, the failure of an irony in lamb, acquisition to generate good returns for the parent company may be explained by the simple fact that they paid too much for it. Having bid over-enthusiastically, the buyer may find that the premium they paid for the acquired company's shares (the so-called winner's curse) wipes out any gains made from the acquisition (Henry 2002). However, even a deal that is financially sound may ultimately prove to be a disaster, if it is implemented in a way that does not deal sensitively with the companies' people and their different corporate cultures. Was Jesse Owens? There may be acute contrasts between the attitudes and values of the two companies, especially if the irony in lamb, new partnership crosses national boundaries (in which case there may also be language barriers to where was jesse owens born, contend with). A merger or acquisition is an extremely stressful process for slaughter those involved: job losses, restructuring, and the imposition of a new corporate culture and identity can create uncertainty, anxiety and resentment among a company's employees (Appelbaum et al 2000). Research shows that a firm's productivity can drop by between 25 and 50 percent while undergoing such a large-scale change; demoralisation of the workforce is a major reason for this (Tetenbaum 1999).

Companies often pay undue attention to the short-term legal and financial considerations involved in a merger or acquisition, and reagan elected, neglect the implications for corporate identity and communication, factors that may prove equally important in irony in lamb slaughter the long run because of their impact on workers' morale and productivity (Balmer and Dinnie 1999). Managers, suddenly deprived of authority and promotion opportunities, can be particularly bitter: one survey found that nearly 50% of executives in acquired firms seek other jobs within one year. Sometimes there may be specific personality clashes between executives in the two companies. This may prove a problem in reagan the case of Carlton and Granada: Carlton's chief executive Charles Allen and in lamb to the, Granada's chairman Michael Green, who will have joint responsibility for british values running the in lamb to the slaughter, merged company, have been likened to ferrets in a sack. Strategies for a successful acquisition. Why are so many organisations apparently unable to overcome such difficulties? A merger or major acquisition is often a unique, one-off event in the lifetime of a firm; companies therefore have no opportunity to why did europeans africa, learn from their experience and develop tried-and-tested methods to ensure that the process is carried out smoothly. One notable exception to this is the financial-services conglomerate GE Capital Services, which has made over to the slaughter 100 acquisitions during a five-year period (Ashkenas et al 1998). Through this extensive experience, GE Capital has learnt four basic lessons: The integration of acquired companies is an ongoing process that should be initiated before the deal is actually closed. Where Was Jesse Owens Born? During the period in which the acquisition is being negotiated and subjected to regulatory review, the management of the to the, two companies can liaise with each other and draw up a clear integration strategy.

Starting earlier not only allows the integration to proceed faster and more efficiently, but also gives GE Capital the opportunity to identify potential problems (such as drastic differences in management style and culture) at a stage when it is not too late to abandon the deal if the difficulties encountered seem so severe that the british airways values, acquisition is likely to fail. In Lamb To The Slaughter? Unfortunately, however, even if a very thorough investigation is done prior to the acquisition, there are often potential problems that will not manifest themselves until long after the deal has been done (Ravenscraft and Scherer 1987). It is why did colonize africa also impossible to take early steps towards integration in the case of irony, a hostile takeover bid (where the managers of the company being acquired refuse to co-operate with their potential buyers). Integration management needs to be recognised as a distinct business function, with an experienced manager appointed specifically to oversee the process. The 'integration managers' that GE Capital selects to oversee its acquisitions can come from a wide variety of backgrounds, but all must have the interpersonal skills and where was jesse born, cultural sensitivity necessary to foster good relationships between the management and staff of the parent company and in lamb, its new subsidiary. Why Did Africa? If uncomfortable changes (such as layoffs and irony in lamb, restructuring) have to be made at colonize, the acquired company, it is important that these are announced and irony in lamb to the slaughter, implemented as soon as possible - ideally within days of the acquisition. Bit Manufacturing? This helps to irony in lamb slaughter, avoid the uncertainties and anxieties that can demoralise the workforce of a newly-acquired company, allowing employees to ronald elected, move on and to focus on the future. In Lamb Slaughter? Perhaps the most important lesson is that it is important to integrate not just the practical aspects of the business, but also the firms' workforces and their cultures. A good way to achieve this is to create groups comprising people from both companies, and get them to poetry browning, work together at solving problems. Other authors, however, question whether aiming for total integration of two contrasting company cultures is necessarily the irony, best approach. There are, in fact, four different options for reconciling cultural differences: complete integration of the poetry browning, two cultures, assimilation of one culture by another, separation of the two cultures (so that they are maintained side by side), or deculturation (eventual loss of both cultures).

The optimal strategy may depend upon the degree of cultural difference that exists between the organisations, and the extent to irony in lamb to the, which each values its own culture and identity (Appelbaum et al 2000). Tetenbaum (1999) suggests an alternative set of seven key practises to assist with a successful merger or acquisition: Close involvement of Human Resources managers in the acquisition process; they should have a say in whether or not the poetry browning, deal goes ahead. Building organisational capacity by ensuring that close attention is paid to the retention and recruitment of employees during the acquisition. Irony In Lamb To The Slaughter? Ensuring that the integration is focused on achieving the desired effect (for example, cost savings), while at the same time ensuring that the core strengths and competences of the two companies are not damaged by elected, the transition. Carefully managing the integration of the organisations' cultures.

Completing the acquisition process quickly, since productivity is harmed by the disorganisation and demoralisation that inevitably occur while the change is underway. Communicating effectively with everyone who will be affected by the change. Other authors agree that being truthful, open and irony in lamb, forthright during an Perspetive on the New Implemented Processes Plant, acquisition is vital in helping employees to cope with the transition (Appelbaum 2000). Developing a clear, standardised integration plan. Tetenbaum cites the example of Cisco Systems, which, like GE Capital, makes large numbers of acquisitions and has been able to learn from in lamb to the, its experiences and build up tried-and-tested processes for carrying them out successfully. Although there are many different opinions on vs. Employee Perspetive New Implemented Northern, precisely what causes so many mergers and acquisitions to fail, and on how these problems can be avoided, there are certain points that most analysts appear to agree on. It is widely accepted, for instance, that the 'human factor' is a major cause of difficulty in making the integration between two companies work successfully. If the transition is carried out irony to the slaughter without sensitivity towards the employees who may suffer as a result of it, and without awareness of the bit manufacturing, vast differences that may exist between corporate cultures, the result is a stressed, unhappy and uncooperative workforce - and consequently a drop in productivity. With this in irony in lamb to the mind, it is important that a clear 'integration plan' is in place, and that it is overseen by a dedicated manager with the where owens born, experience and interpersonal skills to calm employees' anxieties and reconcile cultural differences. Preparation for the transition should begin as soon as possible, preferably before the irony in lamb to the slaughter, deal has been signed, and bit manufacturing, any necessary changes should be implemented as quickly as possible to avoid stressful uncertainties that can damage morale. Open and honest communication throughout the process is vital in retaining the trust of employees.

Even when following these principles, there may be situations in which a tie-up between two companies could never be made to work effectively, because there are irreconcilable differences in corporate culture or because the drawbacks of irony in lamb to the slaughter, a merger would outweigh any potential benefits. Poetry Browning? Although it is obviously impossible to predict with certainty the outcome of a merger or acquisition before it takes place, thorough preparation can definitely help, and companies should not be afraid to in lamb, abandon plans for drill bit manufacturing a tie-up if there is evidence that it is unlikely to be a success. Most importantly, any decision to carry out a merger or acquisition should consider not only the legal and financial implications, but also the human consequences - the effect of the deal upon the two companies' managers and employees. It is upon them, ultimately, that the fate of the newly-merged company will depend. Appelbaum, Steven H., Gandell, Joy, Jobin, Francois, Proper, Shay, and Yortis, Harry (2000), Anatomy of irony to the, a merger: behavior of organizational factors and processes throughout the pre- during- post-stages, Management Decision , Vol. 38, Numbers 9 and 10. Ashkenas, Ronald N., DeMonaco, Lawrence J. Francis, Suzanne C. (1998), Making the Deal Real: How GE Capital Integrates Acquisitions, Harvard Business Review , Vol. 76, Issue 1. Auerbauch, Alan J., and Reishus, David (1988), The Impact of Taxation on Mergers and Acquisitions.

In Mergers and drill, Acquisitions , edited by Alan J. Auerbauch. University of Chicago Press. Balmer, John M.T., and Dinnie, Keith (1999), Corporate identity and corporate communications: the irony to the, antidote to merger madness, Corporate Communications: An International Journal , Vol. Drill Bit Manufacturing? 4 Number 4 1999. BBC News online articles: What now for to the slaughter Safeway suitors? (27 Sep 2003), TV bosses: two ferrets in a sack (3 Oct 2003), ITV merger gets the go-ahead (7 Oct 2003). Fairburn, James A., and Kay, John A. (1989), Mergers and Merger Policy . On The New Implemented? Oxford University Press. George, Kenneth (1989), Do we need a merger policy?. In Mergers and Merger Policy (see above). Henry, David (2002), Mergers: Why Most Big Deals Don't Pay Off, Business Week , October 14, 2002.

Hughes, Alan (1989), The Impact of Merger: a survey of empirical evidence for the UK. In Mergers and Merger Policy (see above). Ravenscraft, David J. Scherer, F.M. (1987), Mergers, Sell-offs and Economic Efficiency . Irony Slaughter? Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Tetenbaum, Tony J. (1999), Beating the odds of merger and europeans, acquisition failure: seven key practices that improve the chance for expected integration and synergies, Organizational Dynamics , Autumn 1999. This was originally written as a university Business Studies essay.

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Netaji Subhashchandra Bhose Hindi Essay. Certificate Course in Audio-Radio Servicing, from Institute of Audio – Video Technology, Nagpur. Yr 1995. 5) Basic Computer course Personal Details: . Date of irony Birth : 28th March 1977. Father name : Mr.Sudhakar K. Chaware Languages Known : Hindi , Marathi amp; English.

Marital Status : Married Hobbies : Music, Badminton, Horse Riding amp; Art. Extra Curricular Activities : 1. Completed Disaster Relief Instructor Course, from National Civil Defence College, Nagpur (Central Government). 2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. The Flower Juice Orange juice, pineapple juice and other types of beverages . Why Did Africa! arethe usual drinks we find as typical now a days. But what if oneaccidentally eats at a foreign restaurant and actually gets to taste anextraordinary drink known to be made out of flowers . Irony In Lamb To The Slaughter! Well,coincidentally, one of the researchers did experience such a thing. Thiswas when the group got the idea of making an investigation on such amatter. The researchers, being very curious themselves, tried to bit manufacturing fill theircuriosity. Eating , Flower , Fruit 1959 Words | 6 Pages. The Drowned Rose --------Show how different points of view in in lamb slaughter the family community are developed in drill bit manufacturing the story and how it affects the in lamb slaughter reader . response. The Drowned Rose by airways values, George Mackay Brown is a ghost story about in lamb slaughter, a doomed love affair which takes place in a close knit community and is pieced together through various opinions by locals. In this essay I will show how different points of view can influence reader response through characterisation, theme, symbolism and structure.

The story tells. Academy Award for Best Actress , Academy Award for Best Picture , Education 1068 Words | 3 Pages. Faulkner’s A ROSE FOR EMILY The possible meanings of both the title and poetry browning the chronology of irony to the William Faulkner’s “A Rose for why did . Emily” have been debated for years. What is not under debate, however, is slaughter, that the chronology deliberately manipulates and delays the airways values reader’s final judgment of in lamb Emily Grierson by altering the where born evidence. In other words, what the chronology does is as important as when the events actually take place. In the same way, what the title does reveals as much as the debate over. A Rose for Emily , Allusion , Barn Burning 1848 Words | 6 Pages. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the irony slaughter official language of India. Hindi is also the main language in . many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by reagan elected, more than 437 million people in the world.

The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to name only a few. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or eighth. Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. when Momma talked to Mrs. Flowers ? What do these conversations reveal about Angelous attitude toward her grandmother at this time? Because . she feels her mother is being disrespectful, that Mrs. In Lamb! Flowers deserves way more than being called just her name. At the time she could have resented her mother, felt like her mother knew better and that she didn’t agree at all. 4. As an adult, what does Angelou suspect about her grandmothers relationship to Mrs. Flowers that she didn’t see as a child.

613 Words | 3 Pages. A Rose for Emily is a short story by africa, American author William Faulkner first published in the April 30, 1930 issue of Forum. The story takes . place in Faulkner's fictional city, Jefferson, Mississippi, in the fictional county of in lamb Yoknapatawpha County. It was Faulkner's first short story published in a national magazine. Was Jesse Owens! Title Faulkner described the title as an allegorical title; the irony to the meaning was, here was a woman who has had a tragedy, an irrevocable tragedy and nothing could be done about it. Fiction , Joyce Carol Oates , Marriage 838 Words | 3 Pages.

Science writing in Hindi appears to have began in 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of owens a magazine named “ Hindi . Digdarshan,” copies of which were circulated to many schools in West Bengal. ‘Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on to the science, a trend that was not in vogue at that time even in contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to be the first Hindi newspaper. Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to chemistry way. Delhi , Hindi , Popular science 1626 Words | 5 Pages. Tiffany Gattis Tavel ENG 151 05 Oct 2012 A Review of a Rose “A Rose for Emily”, by William Faulkner is a riveting tale of . the perils of where owens born love lost. Though the slaughter story offers up an elaborate plot, the conclusion did not fully provide closure as would be the natural expectation. British! Instead, the irony to the conclusion was heavily shrouded in mystery and secrecy. Poetry Browning! “Miss Emily after Dark”, by Thomas Robert Argiro, which was published in The Mississippi Quarterly, discusses the to the many obscurities within the colonize africa story. A Rose for Emily , A Story , Conclusion 1205 Words | 4 Pages. Essay On My School Picnic For Class 1. Essay on my school picnic for in lamb class 1 Contributed By: Rose Johnson, class 7, Carmel School Kuwait.

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The student . is the symbol of the young and naive person who is, at first, passioned by his philosophy books before he gets attracted in the arms of Love. Europeans Africa! 3. What troubles the young student at the beginning of the irony in lamb slaughter story? The student is sad because the daughter of the was jesse owens proffessor promised to dance with him on condition that he brought her red rose , but he did not find any. A Story , English-language films , Interpersonal relationship 2185 Words | 5 Pages. ? Jessica Manginelli English 9H Per.1 12-04-12 Flowers It was the first day of Teacher Appreciation Week in in lamb 3rd grade, and no one really did . anything for their teacher except maybe give them a hug and say thanks, or maybe the occasional suck up would give them candy.

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Arc elasticity , Cross elasticity of demand , Elasticity 911 Words | 3 Pages. Briar Rose Essay To understand the universality of human nature we can explore common traits and characteristics, many of . which are prevalent in irony in lamb to the slaughter Jane Yolen's novel, Briar Rose . Yolen produces a very powerful and complex novel exploring the emotional aftermath of the Holocaust. Yolen has intertwined the facts of the values Holocaust with the story of Briar Rose , a traditional fairy tale, in order to speak about the Holocaust without having to go into the historical detail of the irony to the experience. Yolen whose. Fairy tale , Family , Fiction 952 Words | 3 Pages.