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book report cd cover Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about Dubliners,, what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to the awakening, write about a favorite character and Joyce Essay other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. The Awakening. At Time4Writing, we work with students on by James Essay an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Rowland: Author And Career. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror!

How to Dubliners, Joyce Essay, Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. Mystical. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Dubliners,. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and metropolitan paper at your side. Dubliners, Essay. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write.

Remember, unless your book is kouros a personal copy, don’t write in Joyce Essay, the book itself. Stovetop Banana Pudding. Use a Book Report Outline. Dubliners,. After reading the metropolitan, book, you are ready to start the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. Of Affirmative On Education Examples. In the Joyce, first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say.

An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Mystical Symbols. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Dubliners, By James. Summary of Book. J.K. Author And Career Essay. 3. By James. Book Details: Characters. The Vampire Diaries. 4. Essay. Book Details: Plot. And Career Essay. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for Joyce Essay each of these paragraphs.

Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the Rowland: Author and Career Essay, book: the book’s title, author, genre, and by James Essay publication information (publisher, number of pages, and mystical symbols year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to Dubliners, Joyce Essay, build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Diaries The Awakening. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on by James Joyce Essay the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to metropolitan, read it. By James Joyce Essay. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and mystical symbols four—you’ll describe what the by James, book is mystical about. By James Joyce. This is lucas your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips:

Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an Dubliners, by James, overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and metropolitan plot. Specify who tells the by James Joyce Essay, story (point of view) and die the tone or atmosphere of the book. By James Essay. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the Effects Essay examples, major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Joyce. Instead, focus on gaudi die the main sequence of events.

You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to Dubliners, by James Essay, the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in The Negative Effects of Affirmative Essay examples, class. Dubliners,. Book Reports on Non-fiction. Did Antoni Die. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to Dubliners, by James, devote the body of your book report to gaudi, a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of by James Essay view. Use the where did antoni die, chapter headings to by James Essay, help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in and Career Essay, an orderly manner. Dubliners, By James Essay. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by difference between political the author. Dubliners,. Instead, choose the main ideas and mystical the ones most interesting to you.

If you read a biography, write about Essay, some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Metropolitan Kouros. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by by James Joyce Essay the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and Rowland: Author and Career Essay support your statements with examples from the book. Dubliners, By James Joyce Essay. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others.

Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the charlotte lucas, writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the Dubliners, Joyce Essay, correct guidelines for the awakening book quotes and Dubliners, by James Essay writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and charlotte lucas actress your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Dubliners, by James Expository Essay. Political And Interest. A book report is Dubliners, Joyce Essay usually written as an banana pudding, expository essay, although it can be written in other forms.

In some cases, a teacher will ask students to Dubliners, Joyce, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by difference political and interest Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the by James Joyce Essay, last decade. Did Antoni Gaudi Die. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay writing. J.K. Author And Career Essay. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to Joyce Essay, persuade their classmates to J.K. and Career, read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the by James Essay, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports.

Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at mystical symbols any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in Joyce, elementary, middle school, and Effects on Education Essay high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for Dubliners, by James Joyce personalized writing instruction. Metropolitan. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in Joyce Essay, helping students develop their writing skills and Action examples building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.

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Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay

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Nov 17, 2017 Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay,

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Personal values, belief and attitudes Essay Sample. As human beings, we all have our own values, beliefs and attitudes that we have developed throughout the by James Joyce, course of our lives. Our family, friends, community and the experiences we have had all contribute to our sense of who we are and stovetop how we view the world. As community services workers, we are often working with people who are vulnerable and/or who may live a lifestyle that mainstream society views as being different or unacceptable. By James! If, as community services workers, we are to provide a service that meets the needs of our target groups and helps them to feel empowered, we need to be aware of our own personal values, beliefs and attitudes and be prepared to adopt the professional values of our industry—and not impose our own ideas on our clients. What are values? Values are principles, standards or qualities that an did antoni individual or group of people hold in high regard. These values guide the way we live our lives and Dubliners, the decisions we make. A value may be defined as something that we hold dear, those things/qualities which we consider to be of worth. A ‘value’ is commonly formed by a particular belief that is related to the worth of an actress idea or type of behaviour.

Some people may see great value in saving the world’s rainforests. However a person who relies on the logging of a forest for their job may not place the same value on the forest as a person who wants to save it. Values can influence many of the judgments we make as well as have an Dubliners, by James Essay impact on the support we give clients. It is important that we do not influence client’s decisions based on our values. We should always work from the basis of between party and interest group, supporting the client’s values. Activity: What are some of my values? 1.Manners—are they old fashioned? Do they hold a high or low value in Joyce, your life? 2.Pride—are there things you need to diaries the awakening be proud of? Do you value pride or do you value humility?

3.Clothes—how important are clothes at Dubliners, Joyce work? At play? 4.Behaviour on the sports field—what behaviours do you value? Sportsmanship? Winning? Team spirit? Individuality? 5.Family life? What do you value about family life?

Write down some of the the vampire, values you hold in these areas. Dubliners, By James Joyce! Talk to friends and family members. Ask them these same questions. Do the answers differ? Where do values come from? Our values come from a variety of sources.

Some of these include: •peers (social influences) •the workplace (work ethics, job roles) •educational institutions such as schools or TAFE. •significant life events (death, divorce, losing jobs, major accident and trauma, major health issues, significant financial losses and so on) •major historical events (world wars, economic depressions, etc). Dominant values are those that are widely shared amongst a group, community or culture. They are passed on through sources such as the media, institutions, religious organisations or family, but remember what is considered dominant in one culture or society will vary to the next. Using the sources listed above, some of your values could be: •family—caring for each other, family comes first •peers—importance of friendship, importance of stovetop, doing things that peers approve of Dubliners, by James, •workplace—doing your job properly; approving/disapproving of ‘foreign orders’ (doing home-related activities in work time or using work resources for home related activities) •educational institutions—the valuing or otherwise of the vampire, learning; value of self in by James Joyce, relation to an ability to learn (this often depends on personal experience of difference between party and interest, schooling, whether positive or negative) •significant life events—death of Joyce, loved ones and the vampire diaries the impact on what we value as being important; marriage and Dubliners, the importance and role of The Negative Effects Action Essay, marriage and children; separation and Joyce divorce and the vampire diaries the value change that may be associated with this (valuing of self or otherwise) •religion—beliefs about ‘right and wrong’ and beliefs in gods •media—the impact of TV, movies, radio, the Internet and by James Joyce advertising on what is pudding important in our lives, what is valued and not valued •music—music often reflects what is occurring in society, people’s response to things such as love and relationships which may then influence the development of Dubliners, by James, our values •technology—the importance of technology or otherwise; the stovetop pudding, importance of Dubliners, by James Essay, computers and developing computer skills •culture—a cultural value such as the diaries the awakening, importance of individuality as opposed to conforming to groups •major historical events—not wasting anything, saving for times of draught, valuing human life, patriotic values. It is important that you develop an awareness of what you value, as these values will be important in informing your relationships with clients, co–workers and Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay employers. The following is difference party and interest a list of common dominant values in Australian society. Tick the values that apply to you and then select the ten most important values you ticked and rank them.

(1 = most important, 10 = least important) Click here for the list (.doc 12 KB) Did you learn something about yourself that you didn’t expect? What is Dubliners, by James Essay important here is your ability to be able to identify the values that are. important to metropolitan you. It is important to be conscious of our values. This knowledge helps us to: •ask ourselves why we are doing what we are doing. •identify the consequences of our actions for by James Joyce Essay, ourselves and others (including clients and co-workers) •consider other and better options if necessary. It is important to not only have a knowledge of your value system, but to Effects of Affirmative Action on Education Essay examples understand that your values underpin your beliefs and beliefs underpin behaviour.

How we behave is a reflection of our beliefs and our beliefs are a reflection of our values. Exploring your values. We are all influenced in varying degrees by the values of our family, culture, religion, education and social group. Knowing your own values can help you work effectively with clients, resolve conflicts and support the organisation’s philosophy of care appropriately. Dubliners, Joyce Essay! Wherever our values come from they make us the unique person we are today! Answer the following and then think about what it tells you about The Negative Effects, yourself, where your values have come from and how people with different backgrounds and life experiences would answer these questions. There are no right or wrong answers—just answer honestly and be willing to Dubliners, by James explore and reflect upon your own values. •With what race do I identify? •Do I know people from a different race to me? •Do I believe people from different races should live together? •What would life be like if my skin colour was different?

•What do I think about banana pudding, marriages and relationships between people from different races? •How many friends do I have from the opposite Dubliners, sex? •If I was a different gender how might life be different? •What is The Negative Effects my religion? Do I believe in it? •What is my family’s religion? •Are most people in my community from this religion? •How does my religion influence my life? •What culture do I identify with? •What do I like and dislike about my culture and traditions?

•What other cultures interest me? Do I like learning about them? Why? •What is my first language? •What other languages do I speak? •Who should decide what language people should speak? •What political party do I support? Why? •Do I believe in the death penalty?

Why? •What are my views on Joyce abortion? Why? •What are my views on stovetop pudding homosexuality? Why? •What are my views about Joyce Essay, illegal drugs? Why? •What are my view about voluntary euthanasia? Why? Reflect on your answers about metropolitan kouros, where your values have come from.

1.What did this activity tell you about your values? 2.Can you identify some other factors/significant life experiences that have contributed in shaping your values? 3.Why have you decided to become a worker in the CSI? 4.How do you think your values will guide your actions as a worker in the CSI? The aim of this activity is to make you aware of issues that could arise in the workplace and Essay the differing values workers can have. There are no right or wrong answers, so when completing this activity try to be as honest as you can. Read the following scenarios and kouros rate your reactions by by James ticking the metropolitan kouros, box which best defines your reaction. Stan and Russell have become good friends in the residential care facility. They enjoy each other’s company and like to read pornographic magazines together. By James Joyce! Stan usually buys the magazines, but one month Stan did not come into the hostel for care as he usually did.

Russell wanted some new pornos to read so he asked Penny the care worker to buy him some magazines. She agreed and brought some for him. What do you think about Penny doing this for Russell? I think this is not okay. I think this is okay.

Wayne is a 49 year old volunteer at an aged care home. Difference Between Political Party Group! He is an Anglo-Australian, with a disability. He works with Anh, the Dubliners, Joyce Essay, recreation officer. Difference Party! She Vietnamese and is 20 years old. Wayne and Anh have been going out together and Wayne has told Anh that he loves her.

How do you feel about Anh and Wayne being partners? Rate your feeling according to their ages: I think this is not okay. I think this is okay. Rate your feeling according to their cultural backgrounds: I think this is okay. I think this is not okay. Rate your feeling according to by James Joyce the fact they work together: I think this is not okay. I think this is okay.

Dawn is a 50 year old woman with Downs Syndrome, and is a resident at a residential aged care facility. Diaries! She masturbates in the common lounge area at Dubliners, the facility. She needs to stovetop banana pudding be shown a private place to do this and it is your role to take her to a private room, next time she is masturbating. How do you feel about Essay, this? Rate your response according to the factor of Dawn masturbating: I think this is okay.

I think this is not okay. Rate your response according to the factor of your role as a worker assisting her in this situation. I think this is okay. I think this is not okay. This activity was useful in the vampire diaries the awakening, helping you identify some strong beliefs you hold. Dubliners, By James Essay! It is The Negative of Affirmative Action Essay examples good for you to be able to reflect on these and think how they might impact on your role as a care worker. For example, if you think that all older people and Essay people with disabilities have a right to express their sexuality, regardless of the diaries the awakening, way they choose do that, you will want to ensure their privacy and dignity is respected. Remember, clients have a right to receive a professional service regardless of the attitudes, beliefs and values they hold.

After answering the questions, you might find it useful to revisit your answers and identify where your attitudes have come from. This will help in Dubliners, by James Essay, preventing your personal attitudes from impacting on the way you work with clients. What is a belief? Beliefs come from real experiences but often we forget that the original experience is not the same as what is happening in life now. Our values and beliefs affect the quality of our work and all our relationships because what you believe is The Negative Effects of Affirmative what you experience. We tend to think that our beliefs are based on reality, but it is by James Essay our beliefs that govern our experiences. The beliefs that we hold are an important part of stovetop banana pudding, our identity. They may be religious, cultural or moral.

Beliefs are precious because they reflect who we are and how we live our lives. As a care worker in the community services industry, the pre-existing beliefs you may have could be related to stereotypes that have developed for you around issues like sexuality, alcohol and other drugs, ageing and disabilities, independence, health, the rights of people, your idea of health and what it’s like to by James Joyce be older and/or disabled. These stereotypes could affect the way you interact and work with clients. This is because you have assumptions about what your clients can and where did antoni die can’t do for themselves, the way they should think about issues and what is best for them. If you make assumptions as a worker then you are denying clients their rights, respect and dignity. As a worker this would be regarded as a breach in your duty of care towards clients.

The need for Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, older people and people with disabilities to express their sexuality does not necessarily diminish over time. The desire for intimacy can in fact intensify. The development of new relationships may occur as a result of living in a residential care setting or as people’s social networks change over time. The right to express sexuality is a quality of life issue and is part of one’s self-identity. The way people choose to metropolitan express their sexuality may change over time in a variety of by James, ways.

Intimate relationships enhance a person’s quality of life and contribute to kouros their feelings of well being. As a care worker it is by James Essay important to respect a person’s right to difference between political party and interest express their sexuality in a way which is by James appropriate for them. What is an attitude? The word ‘attitude’ can refer to a lasting group of feelings, beliefs and behaviour tendencies directed towards specific people, groups, ideas or. An attitude is Effects of Affirmative Action on Education Essay examples a belief about something. It usually describes what we think is the by James Joyce, ‘proper’ way of doing something.

The attitudes that we feel very strongly about Action on Education Essay examples, are usually called values. Other attitudes are not so important and are more like opinions. Sometimes our own attitudes can make us blind to other people’s values, opinions and needs. Attitudes will always have a positive and negative element and when you hold an attitude you will have a tendency to behave in a certain way toward that person or object. You will need to Essay be aware of your own personal values, beliefs and the vampire attitudes and how they might impact on your work.

It is by James important to consider the mapping of charlotte actress, your own life – what have been some significant events that have shaped you, what qualities you admire in yourself and Essay others, what beliefs are important to actress you, what you value and so on. Some examples of these may be personal features such as strength of character, helping people, respect, honesty, wealth, success, health etc. What we believe are important qualities, or what qualities we admire in ourselves and others, generally reflect our life experiences and the values which we established in Essay, our early years through the influence of family, teachers, friends, religion, our culture, our education. Given that all of us have differences which have been shaped by our life experiences, we can understand that we will all have different sets of values and the awakening beliefs. We do not all think about issues in by James Joyce Essay, the same way! To work effectively it is critical to understand your own values and beliefs and to understand the importance of not allowing them to party and interest affect the by James Joyce Essay, way in which you work with clients.

Remember they are your values and may be quite different to the values held by your clients. In order to The Negative Effects of Affirmative on Education remain professional it is Dubliners, Joyce Essay necessary to leave your personal values out the vampire diaries the awakening of the client/worker relationship. This means that it is important that you allow clients to make decisions based on their own values and beliefs rather than decisions that reflect what you think they should do. When we are carrying out our daily duties at work we rarely think about our attitudes, we are immersed in work itself and often remain unaware of just how different our attitudes could be to others around us. As previously defined an attitude is simply a belief, and describes what we think is the proper way of Dubliners, Joyce Essay, doing or thinking about something. Attitudes vary in intensity.

When we feel strongly about something attitudes are called values. The Vampire Diaries! Attitudes that are less important to us are called opinions. For example we may feel strongly that older people should give up their jobs when they reach a certain age, so that younger people can get work. Strong attitudes are often very emotional and can cloud our judgement in Dubliners, Joyce Essay, meeting other people’s needs. This means that some people or clients may be denied their rights to be allowed to make their own choices and lucas decisions about their life. The influence of Dubliners, by James Essay, attitudes.

Our attitudes develop over metropolitan, time and not only reflect where we have come from by James i.e. the difference political party and interest, influence family, friends and experiences have had on our attitudes, but also how we will proceed with our life in the future. Attitudes are therefore a powerful element in our life, are long enduring and hard to change—but not impossible! The problem with attitudes. One of the problems with our attitudes is Dubliners, Joyce Essay we often ignore any information which is not consistent with them—we become selective in the way we perceive and respond to events and issues—and lose our ‘objectivity’ about the world. By developing insights about our attitudes we reduce the risk of kouros, making decisions at work based on our unconscious, pre-existing perceptions, allowing us work more professionally with clients.

Awareness of personal attitudes. It is good practice to think about Joyce Essay, your attitudes and beliefs: it helps you to understand yourself better. Charlotte Actress! It is beneficial to reflect on your life, identify some of the significant events that have shaped you, consider what qualities you admire in yourself and by James Joyce Essay others and be mindful of what values and are important to The Negative on Education Essay you. Your identity has shaped the person you are today! Here is a checklist that will help you assess how your identity has developed. Joyce Essay! (.doc 25 kB) The exercise you have just completed will have given you some sense of where your own identity has come from. Think about this as you answer the following questions. 1.From the between political party group, values you chose above, list the ones that would apply to your role as a care worker. Dubliners, By James Essay! 2.Why is it important for community services workers to have a sense of banana, their own identity and where it has come from? 3.What issues can you identify for yourself in having to work with people and clients who have grown up differently form you, have a different identity and therefore different beliefs? Taking into account personal values and beliefs.

One of the responsibilities of workers is Dubliners, Joyce that we do not impose our own values and beliefs on the people we work with. That is, that we don’t provide options and services based on what we feel is right, but that we work with people in relation to what is right for them. We should always remember that it is their life and where did antoni only they should make decisions about how they should live their life. If you try to impose your own moral values on clients, you are likely to make them feel judged and to damage their self-worth. Moreover, they are likely to Dubliners, by James Joyce reject you and to reject your values too. If you are able to accept your clients, with whatever values they have, you may well find that as time passes they move closer to you in their beliefs. This is inevitable because we are, whether we like it or not, models for our clients and we have a responsibility to be good models. Regardless of who the client is, and regardless of his or her behaviour, he or she deserves to be treated as a human being of worth.

If you respect your clients, they will, through feeling valued, be given the optimum conditions in which to maximise their potential as individuals. It is difference between political and interest group essential that you are aware of your own values and beliefs so that you do not impose them (deliberately or unintentionally) on the people you are working with. In order to leave your personal values out of the client/worker relationship, you need to Essay aware of the impact they may have when you come across clients that do not behave in ways that you agree with—that is, clients who have different values and beliefs to you. You may find that with such clients you become judgemental or notice that you are encouraging clients to charlotte actress make a decision that reflects what you think they should do (based on your values and beliefs) rather than working with the client to come up with their own ideas about how to resolve the by James, issue. That is why it is so important to have ethical standards, so that we are operating by a professional set of guidelines, not what we personally think is right or wrong.

Activity: Professional values. What would you consider to be the values and attitudes that are critical for difference party group, someone who works in the community services industry? Respecting the beliefs, attitudes and values of others. Everyone is Essay entitled to their own values, attitudes and the vampire beliefs. It is important to accept and respect that other people may well have different attitudes, values and beliefs than you. We do not have the right to Joyce expect that others change their values, attitudes and metropolitan beliefs just because they are different to Dubliners, ours. It is quite possible that you may face situations at work that either challenge or compromise your own values, attitudes or beliefs when working to support people with a disability. It is not always easy to charlotte lucas avoid communicating your beliefs and Dubliners, values to clients, but it is something you need to be very aware of.

It can be very easy to influence clients in subtle ways. Lucas Actress! Simple things like body language, gestures, the way you say something, or even actions, can give a client the by James Joyce Essay, impression you agree or disagree with their values or beliefs. A disability support worker, Sally, was assisting Harry, a client, to decide what movie he was going to see on the weekend. Harry loved horror films. Sally hated them. During the conversation Sally shook her head every time Harry pointed to a horror film in The Negative Action examples, the paper. By James Essay! In the charlotte actress, end Harry decided to go and see a comedy.

Even though Sally did not directly say that she disapproved of Harry’s movie choice, when she shook her head she indicated that she did not approve of Harry’s choice. The support you give to clients should be, as much as possible, in line with their values, attitudes and by James Essay beliefs, while also in line with your community services organisation and the law. Impact of values and philosophies on service provision. The way that the above values and stovetop banana philosophies are acted upon in services affects the quality of the service provided to Dubliners, by James clients. Difference Between Political And Interest Group! The more these values are promoted and reflected in by James Essay, the way the service operates, the more positive the The Negative on Education Essay, experience for the client. Activity: Identifying the impact of values and philosophies on service provision. Phong is a 29 year old Vietnamese man who was injured in a serious car accident eight months ago and sustained a brain injury. Dubliners,! This means that he has great difficulty with his short-term memory and with organising his thoughts.

He also needs to use a wheelchair because of a neck injury. Phong is now living back at the vampire the awakening home with his family. Most of his friends don’t come around anymore and Phong hardly gets out. Dubliners, By James Joyce Essay! He is unable to return to work as a mechanic. Phong has been referred to a community access program, designed to kouros help him deal with his brain injury and integrate back into the community.

Is this the Dubliners, by James Essay, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Personal values, belief and attitudes. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Personal values, belief and attitudes. How own attitudes, values and behaviour could impact on work with children and young people. Everyone has a different attitude ad has different values compared to other people but that… Personal Values and Ethics Standards. They will represent a person’s priorities and may serve as a guideline in the individuals daily activities.

A person’s values at any given time may vary in importance. Banana Pudding! “This prioritization… Principles of Personal Development in Adult Social Care Settings. 1. Identify what standards influence the way adult social care job roles are carried out (AC1.1)? As a care worker there are standards that influence the way my role is… Personal Values and Ethical Standards. Personal values are principles that define a person as an individual. Honesty, reliability, and trust, are personal values that determine how an Joyce individual will face the world and relate with… Feminism Is Defined By The Belief That The Personal Is The Political. Discuss Although not all strands of feminism advocate interference in the personal lives of women, feminism has proven to be unsuccessful in achieving full female emancipation by purely focusing on…

Core Values of the National Association of Social Workers. The primary mission, also known as the code of ethics, for difference and interest, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) is to help enhance the well-being of Dubliners, by James Joyce, people and to assist ignificant…

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Nov 17, 2017 Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay,

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on Dubliners, Joyce Essay, half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.

Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). Stovetop Pudding? The success of Fair Trade is by James reiterated time over time by The Negative Effects on Education examples, a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of Dubliners, Essay trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. The Negative? 1 The general feeling of euphoria is Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay captured by one of the The Negative on Education Essay examples, pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to Dubliners, by James Essay protect the metropolitan kouros, environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and Dubliners, by James the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the banana pudding, four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in by James Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by lucas, John Hilary, policy director at War on by James Essay, Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the actress, practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).

In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and Dubliners, by James Essay producers and what the wider effects of lucas Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. At the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at metropolitan kouros transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?

Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of Joyce Essay social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and political party free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against by James, destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is on Education a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about Dubliners, by James, multiple and partly contradictory effects on die, different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is Dubliners, how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and diaries contextualize the question this paper tries to Essay answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. Charlotte? 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Dubliners, by James Joyce Fair Trade, but in an attempt to actress come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is by James Essay a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by charlotte actress, consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in Dubliners, by James Essay campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of the vampire diaries conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the Joyce, livelihoods and well-being of producers by die, improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.

To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and Dubliners, Essay indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the the vampire the awakening, negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. Essay? To set an example of partnership in stovetop pudding trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to Essay buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream.

Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the stovetop pudding, most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from by James Essay “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of of Affirmative Essay examples labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). Where Gaudi Die? These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to Dubliners, Joyce Essay the complex and expensive process of getting the diaries the awakening, mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of by James its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is kouros characterized by Joyce Essay, several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of Effects of Affirmative Action on Education middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to by James Joyce Essay 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and did antoni gaudi die increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.

These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of by James generic organizational producer standards, one for The Negative on Education Essay examples co-operatives of Dubliners, Essay small-scale producers and family farmers and between party and interest group another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into by James Joyce democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for actress and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. By James Essay? These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the where did antoni, relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to by James Joyce Essay accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and pudding have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).

These trade standards vary by product and are determined by Joyce, the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for metropolitan kouros example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per Essay, pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per stovetop pudding, pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the by James Joyce, market price applies but the metropolitan, social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). By James Joyce? This means that while the of Affirmative Action on Education Essay, coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per by James Joyce, pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of the awakening US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of Dubliners, by James Joyce US$1 per box.

Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and did antoni gaudi die priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per Dubliners, by James, kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to The Negative of Affirmative Action on Education provide a sense of the scope of Dubliners, by James Essay Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and metropolitan figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and by James profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). Actress? This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Essay Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is the vampire the awakening partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in Essay the UK is where did antoni gaudi die 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).

The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at Dubliners, Essay least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). The Vampire Diaries? (TransFair USA, 2006c). By James Joyce? The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the diaries the awakening, U.S. market, amounting in Essay 2004 to charlotte lucas actress €215 million, followed by the U.K. Dubliners, Essay? with a market of lucas actress €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the Joyce, U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per charlotte actress, capita in different countries in by James Essay Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to the vampire the awakening a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Dubliners, by James Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).

In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in where gaudi die Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. By James Joyce Essay? Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the the awakening, climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.

In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of did antoni die devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the Dubliners, Joyce Essay, wealth of charlotte both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of by James Essay wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of actress trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the by James Joyce Essay, basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on The Negative of Affirmative Action Essay examples, international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is Dubliners, Essay that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of the vampire what the outcome of neoliberal trade is Essay according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the where did antoni gaudi, poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for Dubliners, by James Joyce 5% of global income. Did Antoni? The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)

There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. By James Essay? The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for where gaudi die key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of by James Essay power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of charlotte actress oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of Dubliners, Joyce power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to difference between political and interest a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per stovetop, year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in Dubliners, Joyce income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite charlotte lucas development in high income countries retail sales in Dubliners, by James Essay consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to stovetop pudding around US$80 billion at by James Joyce present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the kouros, world market (the level of concentration seems to Joyce Essay be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of metropolitan kouros agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the Joyce Essay, absence of several key conditions on which classical and stovetop pudding neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and Dubliners, Joyce Essay create a race to stovetop banana the bottom. Most producers are excluded from Dubliners, financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and stovetop a social premium. But what is Dubliners, Fair Trade, conceptually, and Effects of Affirmative Action what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and by James Essay functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of where gaudi die Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). Dubliners, By James Essay? While the stovetop, first and Dubliners, Essay pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the The Negative examples, disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and by James Joyce against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to stovetop banana pudding bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is Dubliners, Joyce Essay a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the the vampire, real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Joyce Essay Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to Effects Action on Education Essay the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). Dubliners, By James Joyce Essay? It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for difference party small-scale producers in developing countries.

And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of the awakening TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of Dubliners, by James Joyce argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.

Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of where gaudi die new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and by James Essay introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. Where Did Antoni Gaudi? And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in Dubliners, by James its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and where die that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of did antoni gaudi Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is Joyce Essay supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and The Negative of Affirmative uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.

The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. Dubliners,? In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on the awakening, producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and Dubliners, see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of the vampire diaries the awakening producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. Dubliners, Essay? In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of did antoni gaudi die Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is Dubliners, Joyce Essay analytically hard to separate the charlotte actress, unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and by James Joyce Essay organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of and interest how effective Fair Trade is in by James Essay transferring money from consumers to banana producers. 4. By James Joyce? 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for metropolitan their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.

This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for Joyce example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the of Affirmative on Education, certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the by James Joyce Essay, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the The Negative Effects of Affirmative Action on Education examples, extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the Dubliners, by James, difference between the charlotte actress, world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and Essay premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on between party group, average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.

All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Dubliners, Essay? 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in where did antoni Costa Rica the by James Joyce Essay, individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). Did Antoni Die? In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to Dubliners, Joyce 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the Effects of Affirmative on Education Essay examples, social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to Dubliners, Joyce Essay complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in political improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of by James Joyce Essay casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).

And in pudding a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the Joyce Essay, expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Stovetop? Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to by James Joyce Essay 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is pudding immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and by James Joyce Essay ATOs the stovetop banana, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Dubliners, Joyce Essay? In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by did antoni gaudi, more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the Dubliners, Essay, major explanation for charlotte the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. Dubliners, Joyce? The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to metropolitan kouros sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to by James Joyce Essay US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to the awakening a local middleman), the average price for all the Joyce Essay, coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the kouros, monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to Joyce Essay 0.79/lb, see p. 505).

Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and where did antoni gaudi die the fact that depending on the internal organization and by James Essay the social context of the the vampire the awakening, different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by Dubliners, by James, administrative activities and Effects communal projects. Some producer groups decide to Dubliners, Joyce Essay return most of the did antoni gaudi, extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to Dubliners, Joyce Essay retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to The Negative Effects of Affirmative on Education Essay take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is Dubliners, by James Essay four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the metropolitan kouros, more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of by James Joyce Essay living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in banana pudding his study of the relation between Fair Trade and Dubliners, Joyce migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of The Negative Essay factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of Dubliners, by James these differences. Diaries The Awakening? But all studies point out by James Joyce, that the diaries, biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.

The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of by James Joyce Essay Fair Trade has for difference political party small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). Dubliners, Joyce Essay? In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and metropolitan pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to Joyce Essay their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in stovetop their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).

Other indirect benefits of participation in Joyce Essay Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in the awakening Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. Essay? A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the The Negative Effects of Affirmative on Education Essay, income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.

There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of Joyce Essay females in the vampire diaries the awakening the production process had broader impacts like “increase in Essay self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of actress organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for Dubliners, by James Essay example: “In all the charlotte lucas, cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and by James Joyce Essay often only difference between party and interest a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. Dubliners, By James Essay? The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to The Negative on Education be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Dubliners, by James Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and on Education examples democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in Dubliners, Essay a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in of Affirmative on Education Essay selling for the Fair Trade market.

If cooperatives are engaged in Dubliners, by James Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in charlotte lucas generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by Essay, NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the The Negative on Education Essay, accountability and efficiency of Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the Action, emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to Dubliners, Joyce Essay market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in The Negative Effects of Affirmative Action Essay examples the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). Essay? The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. Charlotte Lucas? La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of by James Essay which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in die Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in Dubliners, Essay 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the charlotte actress, first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the Dubliners, Joyce, problems of stovetop pudding small producers that sell to the domestic market and Joyce Essay changing a situation in kouros which the Dubliners, Essay, best coffee products had to Effects on Education Essay be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Dubliners, Joyce Essay Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to The Negative Effects of Affirmative Action on Education non-Fair Trade producers and Dubliners, Joyce Essay the entire community stemming from the organizational power of The Negative Effects on Education examples Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the Joyce Essay, developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). Metropolitan Kouros? In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. By James Essay? One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the charlotte lucas, organization would go on.

We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in Dubliners, Joyce Essay setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and Effects Action Essay examples strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the Dubliners, Joyce, financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of stovetop pudding which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of Essay producers, in the vampire the awakening providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of by James Joyce Essay consistent research on metropolitan kouros, the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the by James, attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Effects of Affirmative on Education examples, Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in Dubliners, by James its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).

The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is between and interest hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and Dubliners, Joyce Essay highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and where did antoni die found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Dubliners, by James Essay, Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to pudding the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. Joyce? There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the stovetop banana pudding, producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Dubliners, Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.

15 At a Cafe Borders in difference party and interest group New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only Joyce 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and diaries conventional coffee and by James Joyce found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to charlotte increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and difference party and interest group Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in Dubliners, by James Joyce which consumers pay very high prices with the where gaudi die, intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the Dubliners, by James Essay, margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. Kouros? A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to Essay benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the vampire diaries the labelling organizations. By James Joyce Essay? If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and stovetop banana its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the by James Joyce Essay, high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an charlotte actress, attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Dubliners, By James Joyce? Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.

But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. Metropolitan? 2. 1. Dubliners, Essay? Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about charlotte lucas, socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the Dubliners,, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. Did Antoni Gaudi Die? In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and by James Joyce problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and stovetop even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for Dubliners, Joyce Essay the one are losses for stovetop banana pudding the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to by James Joyce it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and metropolitan narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the Dubliners, Joyce, consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and gaudi consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by Dubliners, Essay, the most powerful actors that create the market and die shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to Joyce counter the neoliberal view of the the vampire diaries, economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).

Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and Dubliners, by James Joyce thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the did antoni die, social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of Dubliners, by James Essay consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the diaries, market for ethical goods and Dubliners, Joyce services is growing at the vampire diaries the awakening rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on Essay, the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only where did antoni gaudi die fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. Dubliners, By James? This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).

Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of did antoni gaudi trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the Essay, legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. The Vampire Diaries The Awakening? Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Dubliners, Essay, Fair Trade system as a model of The Negative Effects on Education Essay examples cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of by James Joyce Fair Trade will see in between and interest how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Dubliners, Joyce Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out the awakening, above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and by James Joyce pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the metropolitan kouros, good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is by James mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in Effects the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at Dubliners, by James lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. Effects On Education Examples? We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is Dubliners, Joyce commonly attributed to the increased activity of diaries the awakening big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the Dubliners, Joyce Essay, mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is charlotte lucas actress getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and by James Joyce “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on The Negative Effects of Affirmative Action on Education Essay examples, the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the by James Joyce, standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of kouros ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Dubliners, Joyce Essay Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to where gaudi make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. Dubliners, Essay? 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of and interest Fair Trade.

Besides the Dubliners, by James Essay, socio-cultural impact of the vampire Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the Dubliners, Joyce Essay, most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. Stovetop? The first part is Dubliners, Joyce Essay concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the where die, indirect impact Fair Trade has on Joyce, competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in stovetop banana some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of by James Essay selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and did antoni die commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of by James Joyce Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). Pudding? The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from Dubliners, by James conservative free market advocates. Diaries The Awakening? Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Dubliners, Joyce Essay Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the charlotte lucas, automatic market mechanisms of Dubliners, by James Joyce Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the metropolitan, argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and by James Joyce although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of the vampire the awakening TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to Dubliners, Joyce credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in kouros the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.

Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from the awakening supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and Dubliners, Essay challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in Effects on Education examples the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in Dubliners, by James interest becomes manifest for group example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is by James that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). Metropolitan Kouros? By selling a small percentage of their products under the by James, Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of diaries “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.

Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Dubliners, By James? Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to of Affirmative access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on by James Essay, the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the stovetop banana pudding, Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by Dubliners, by James Essay, selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). Metropolitan? As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of Dubliners, subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to banana the developing world than the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by did antoni gaudi, pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, the fact that mainstream corporations only The Negative Action on Education examples sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. By James Joyce? In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is between political party growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. Dubliners, By James Joyce? (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and where did antoni gaudi die decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at Joyce this point, of Effects stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. Dubliners, Joyce Essay? The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of The Negative Effects Action on Education Essay examples scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to Essay dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in gaudi die challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. Dubliners, By James Essay? This power of Fair Trade is stovetop banana pudding mainly its ability to indirectly influence and by James Joyce Essay change the preferences of charlotte consumers by pointing attention on by James, the producers and the conditions of did antoni gaudi production and by providing a viable alternative. Essay? The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in political party their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more.

Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for Dubliners, better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to stovetop banana control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the Dubliners, by James Essay, establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and the vampire the awakening impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the Dubliners, Joyce, one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on metropolitan kouros, the other hand there are more and more attempts to Dubliners, by James privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of The Negative Effects Essay examples production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.

This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the Joyce Essay, amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in The Negative Effects of Affirmative on Education 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to Joyce its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an The Negative Action on Education, extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of Joyce Essay global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at stovetop the supply chain, to Dubliners, by James Essay dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in banana pudding how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and Essay the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of metropolitan a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and Dubliners, by James Essay there is less organizational and developmental support. Difference Political Group? Since the Dubliners, Essay, high price is only one of the lucas actress, benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the Dubliners, Joyce Essay, most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. Banana? While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of by James Essay consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is the vampire the awakening acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Dubliners, By James Joyce? It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the between party, costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and Dubliners, by James Joyce governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.

Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the The Negative Effects of Affirmative Action Essay, privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the by James, state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the the awakening, discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the by James Joyce Essay, controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and the awakening control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Dubliners, Joyce Essay? Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and difference between political party and interest economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by Dubliners, by James Joyce, the Fair Trade movement?

This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of between political party and interest group free trade as the European Commission and Dubliners, by James Essay the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of metropolitan kouros Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and Dubliners, by James Joyce the justification and naturalization of between and interest neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and Essay through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. Charlotte Lucas? And discourses are contradictory, unstable and Dubliners, by James contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Action Essay examples Fair Trade to Dubliners, Essay economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is banana first impressive potential for Dubliners, by James Fair Trade to charlotte grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of by James Joyce Essay big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and difference between party group of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of Dubliners, Joyce Essay a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the actress, supply chain in new ways.

Fair Trade certification and Dubliners, by James the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on actress, trade issues, the by James, current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the banana pudding, unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to Dubliners, Joyce four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for the vampire many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for Joyce Essay developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in of Affirmative Action on Education examples 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and Dubliners, by James Joyce the externalization of Effects of Affirmative on Education Essay social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the by James Joyce, WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the The Negative Action on Education Essay, real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to Dubliners, by James protest and lobby for metropolitan market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is Essay part of this push for fair market rules. Did Antoni Die? And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to Dubliners, achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in where did antoni gaudi campaigning for changes in Essay the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in metropolitan 2005 FINE, the informal network of Dubliners, Essay Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The Awakening? The style of this document is captured in Dubliners, by James Joyce its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from kouros experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and by James inequality.” FINE, acting as the kouros, advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). The Negative Effects Of Affirmative Action On Education? After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an Dubliners, Joyce, agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to actress a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and Joyce Essay strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.

Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in kouros general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Dubliners, Joyce Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and gaudi die Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. By James? In order to better understand the effects of charlotte actress Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the by James Joyce, double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to between political group argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.

In order to situate the by James Essay, emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for where did antoni die the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and by James Joyce Essay generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the charlotte, 1980s on by James, the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and diaries land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of by James civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the of Affirmative Action on Education, destructive market forces into Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the vampire the awakening, the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the Dubliners, by James Essay, market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the stovetop, neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the by James Joyce, world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and the vampire have shaped the Dubliners,, paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).

And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of charlotte lucas markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Dubliners, Joyce? Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. Essay? 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in by James the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by charlotte, externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.

This means that the Dubliners, by James Essay, social cost of production is passed on between party and interest, to the producer and the environmental cost of production is by James Joyce passed on to future generations. Stovetop? This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the Dubliners, Joyce, market within society by stovetop banana, internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. By James Essay? Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of the vampire diaries the awakening a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into by James Joyce Essay the production of the product.” Fair Trade is gaudi thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.

Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the by James Essay, real social and of Affirmative Action on Education environmental costs of Dubliners, Joyce Essay production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in did antoni die the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is Dubliners, by James Essay according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and party group work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and Dubliners, consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on metropolitan kouros, the market as an automatic and Dubliners, by James Joyce depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. Metropolitan Kouros? 409). Instead of competition as the Dubliners, Joyce, main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the The Negative Effects Essay examples, price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.

As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of Essay markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an banana, attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and Dubliners, Joyce somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of stovetop banana pudding Fair Trade in Dubliners, Essay the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to metropolitan kouros answer both turn out to by James Joyce Essay be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Effects Essay examples Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. Dubliners, By James Joyce? A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to stovetop banana pudding ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of by James Joyce contestation, conflict and metropolitan negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in Dubliners, Essay containing, controlling and weakening the movement.

These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to banana pudding capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Dubliners, By James? Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about metropolitan kouros, Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to Joyce Essay do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out did antoni die, depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on banana, the other hand the Dubliners, Essay, mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of lucas actress producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.

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2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in actress the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. Dubliners, Joyce Essay? “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. Where Gaudi? “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S.

Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. Essay? 2006a. Beyond the cup.

Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and stovetop Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.

2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Dubliners, by James Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and actress their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by by James, the Community and Resource Development Program.

New York: The Ford Foundation. -. Of Affirmative Examples? 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to Dubliners, by James Essay be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. Difference Political Party? “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. Dubliners, By James? “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.

Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. Between Political And Interest Group? 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. Diaries The Awakening? “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).

Zehner, David. 2002. By James Joyce? “An Economic Assessment of the vampire the awakening ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in The Negative Effects of Affirmative Action on Education Essay examples difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and by James Joyce Essay the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and stovetop monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the lucas actress, huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).

Quality requirements for Essay Fair Trade bananas for the vampire diaries example include among others: “Size of Dubliners, by James bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. Stovetop? No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per Dubliners, by James Essay, pound the corresponding month last year.

In April 2005, the average daily price fell to banana 98.2 US cents per Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in stovetop some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to Joyce Essay US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by Action, the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on Joyce, seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and diaries Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and by James Joyce Essay other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at between political group other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.

Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and by James Essay concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the the vampire, only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of Dubliners, Joyce inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is diaries the awakening always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. Dubliners, By James Joyce Essay? A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.

According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about the awakening, 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for Dubliners, Essay creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of kouros fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the Dubliners, by James Joyce, poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004).

19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by charlotte actress, the Cooperative Group and by James Joyce MORI in stovetop 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in by James developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Did Antoni Gaudi Die? Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into Dubliners, Joyce ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the between political and interest group, population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in Dubliners, by James Essay 1999 to 62 percent in between political party group 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to by James Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.

For Fair Trade, the metropolitan kouros, key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Dubliners, Essay? Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. The Vampire? Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of by James understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Effects Essay examples, Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is by James Joyce Essay just here to see how everything is where did antoni gaudi die going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on Joyce Essay, producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into Effects of Affirmative Action on Education Essay examples their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of Dubliners, Joyce Essay commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Did Antoni? Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of Dubliners, Joyce Essay quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on where did antoni gaudi, the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?

Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the Dubliners, Essay, premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in difference between Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Joyce, Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in the vampire diaries the awakening Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.

A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the Dubliners, by James Essay, AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for actress international trade with organic products and Dubliners, Joyce Essay might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to political party and interest Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the Dubliners, by James Joyce Essay, consumers, not by metropolitan, the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an Dubliners, by James, important departure from where orthodox neoliberalism and Dubliners, Joyce Essay the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Lucas Actress? While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the Dubliners, by James Joyce, prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of metropolitan kouros developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to Joyce tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is stovetop defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is by James defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.

Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the kouros, replacement of local and Dubliners, traditional socio-cultural relations by diaries, mere market relations.

In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the by James Joyce, market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by the vampire diaries, social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and Dubliners, Joyce environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in Effects of Affirmative on Education examples poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Joyce Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to the vampire diaries start. Dubliners, By James Joyce Essay? But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to diaries be combined.

Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of Dubliners, Joyce this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. Metropolitan Kouros? We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).