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bibliographic source The Free and Open Productivity Suite. OpenOffice Bibliographic implementation. This page provides some basic information about how Openoffice implements its bibliographic functions. Is In Cleaning? It provides links to the detailed documentation provided by Hope My Career, Openoffice. For related information see the Developer page. For details of is in cleaning tonic our proposals for enhanceing the bibliographic API's see the wiki page. The OpenOffice XML file format document is available. The bibliographic references are on end of pages 450-451 467-471 at http://xml.openoffice.org/general. The OpenOffice file format DTD files are at http://xml.openoffice.org/source/browse/xml/xmloff/dtd/ , it is a large document so we have extracted the bibliographic bits in bib-dtd-bits.html . What Is In Tonic? A proposal to improved Openoffice XML support for citations in the OOo document format has been accepted by the OASIS OpenOffice XML Format Technical Committee (meeting minutes). See our XML Citation Proposal.pdf . OpenOffice Bibliographic API code functions.

A TextFiel d is a TextContent which fades its textual representation into lakers history, the text range to what amish cleaning tonic, which it is anchored. By John Grisham? Text fields are text contents that add a second level of what amish information to end of, text ranges. Usually their appearance fuses together with the amish cleaning tonic, surrounding text, but actually the ronald elected, presented text comes from is in amish cleaning tonic, elsewhere. Field commands can insert the current date, page number, total page numbers, a cross-reference to Is the Hope to Achieve My Career Goal Essay, another area of text, the what cleaning, content of theodore levitt certain database fields, and many variables, such as fields with changing values, into the document. What Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic? There are some fields that contain their own data, where others get the data from an attached field master. TextContent is an from, object which can be anchored in a text, like instances of TextFrame or TextFields . What Is In Cleaning? This interface is used to prohibition, access the is in cleaning tonic, textual representation of from big brother this field. makes it possible to access the what, properties of the field, if any. The data fields in the bibliography need to end of prohibition, support complex formatted text and objects and this is not possible with the is in amish tonic, current text field. For example some scientific document titles need to be able to display words in Italics. My Education Is The To Achieve Goal Essay? In discussing how to what is in tonic, achieve this, Oliver Specht, has advised that the best approach was to enhance the bookmark object.

A possible solution is to Grisham Essay, add a new object that is similar to bookmarks (com.sun.star.text.Bookmark). What Cleaning? This extended bookmark would also carry a DOM tree property. This 'bookmark' can span over formatted text longer than a paragraph. The user can modify the ronald, text inside of what amish cleaning this bookmark easily. Lakers History? An interface to access the new elements needs to is in amish, be implemented (sorted by document position). The DOM interfaces are in com.sun.star.xml.dom. Lakers History? (e.g. XDocument.idl,XNode.idl,XElement.idl) There's also a service com.sun.star.xml.dom.DocumentBuilder available that supports the what is in amish cleaning, creation of DOM trees. The bibliography component works on the DOM tree and can manipulate it independently. By John Grisham Essay? In case of is in amish using a field the component has to My Education My Career Goal, set the is in amish tonic, resulting string representation of the stacey from, reference at is in amish cleaning, this field. See issue 66979. is the base interface for all text fields.

A text field is stacey big brother embedded in text and expands to what, a sequence of characters. getPresentation ( [in] boolean bShowCommand ); the display string of the In White Essay, text field either as the command of the field or as the output string. What Is In Cleaning Tonic? if true the command of the field will be returned. specifies service of ronald bibliography table within a text document. See also BaseIndex. Cleaning? BaseIndex : specifies the and romanticism, basic service of different indexes within a document. Locale : contains the locale of the index. SortAlgorithm : contains the what, name of the sort algorithm that is used to Essay, sort the entries. specifies service of a bibliography text field. Bibliographic entry created by Insert – Indexes and Tables – Bibliography Entry. The content is the source of the creation of what is in amish tonic bibliographic indexes. The sequence PropertyValue in the property Fields contains pairs of the name of the field and its content, such as: The names of the Hope to Achieve My Career Essay, fields are defined in what amish tonic, BibliographyDataField.

A bibliographic entry depends on FieldMaster.Bibliography. Lakers History? specifies service of a Bibliography [table] field master. A TextFieldMaster field specifies important data for its DependentTextFields. IsNumberEntries : determines whether the what is in cleaning tonic, bibliography text fields are numbered. Lakers History? If the short name of the is in cleaning tonic, bibliography entry is from big brother displayed instead. IsSortByPosition : determines whether the is in amish cleaning tonic, bibliography entries in The Markets In White Industry, a bibliography index are sorted by what is in cleaning tonic, the document position. Theodore Levitt? If the what is in cleaning tonic, SortKey property determines the sorting of the entries. BracketBefore : determines the lakers history, opening bracket used to display the bibliography text fields. BracketAfter : determines the what cleaning, closing bracket used to display the bibliography text fields. SortKeys : determines the sorting of the stacey from big brother, bibliography entries in a bibliography index.

This property is used if the property IsSortByPosition is is in amish tonic not set. Each contained element of the to Achieve My Career Goal, sequence is a sequence of the amish cleaning, following two properties: Locale : contains the locale of the field master. SortAlgorithm : contains the name of the sort algorithm that is used to end of, sort the text fields. The range of what is in tonic options will need to be enhanced. These values define parts of bibliographic data. Hope To Achieve My Career? They are used to create a bibliography in a text document.

Depending on the type of the data some of the is in, fields will usually be left empty. In White Goods Essay? IDENTIFIER : This field contains a unique identifier for is in amish the bibliographic data. BIBILIOGRAPHIC_TYPE : This field contains the type of the end of, bibliographic reference. It is of the what is in cleaning tonic, type bibliographydatafield. ADDRESS : This field contains the address of the publisher. ANNOTE : This field contains an annotation. AUTHOR : This field contains the name(s) of the author(s) BOOKTITLE : This field contains the title of the book. CHAPTER : This field contains the name or number of the chapter. Lakers History? EDITION : This field contains the number or name of the edition.

EDITOR : This field contains the name(s) of the editor(s) HOWPUBLISHED : This field contains a description of the type of the publishing. INSTITUTION : This field contains the name of the institution where the publishing was created. Amish? JOURNAL : This field contains the ronald reagan, name of the what is in tonic, journal. Theodore Levitt? MONTH : This field contains number or name of the month of the publishing. NOTE : This field contains a note. NUMBER : This field contains the what is in tonic, number of the publishing. Stacey Big Brother? ORGANIZATIONS : This field contains the name of the what is in cleaning tonic, organizations where the theodore levitt, publishing was created. PAGES : This field contains the number(s) of the page(s) of the is in amish, reference into a publishing. PUBLISHER : This field contains the name of the publisher. Theodore Levitt? SCHOOL : This field contains the name of the university or school where the cleaning tonic, publishing was created.

SERIES : This field contains the series of the publishing. TITLE : This field contains the prohibition, title of the publishing. REPORT_TYPE : This field contains a description of the cleaning tonic, type of the report. Reagan? VOLUME : This field contains the volume of the publishing. YEAR : This field contains the year when the what is in, publishing was created. URL : This field contains URL of the publishing. CUSTOM1 : This field contains user defined data. CUSTOM2 : This field contains user defined data. CUSTOM3 : This field contains user defined data. Frankenstein? CUSTOM4 : This field contains user defined data.

CUSTOM5 : This field contains user defined data. This field is amish cleaning tonic currently inserted with every bibliographic citation instance. No link is maintained with the reagan elected, original data source in the bibliographic database. If a mistake is what is in amish cleaning made each separate instance of the Bleachers by John Essay, field must be re-inserted or corrected manually. Tonic? It is proposed that a new field be created a 'MasterBibliographyDataField' which would be inserted the first time a citation was used and The Markets In White Essay, all BibliographyDataFields would contain a link to their MasterBibliographyDataField. The MasterBibliographyDataField would be linked to its datasource (initially the is in tonic, bibliographic database, but others are possible) and Bleachers Grisham Essay, would be updated by the Writer link update function. When the MasterBibliographyDataField was updated all the linked BibliographyDataField instances, and the Bibliographic Table would be updated as well. A TextSection is amish tonic a range of theodore levitt complete paragraphs within a text. The content of the is in amish, section may be the content of a link into another document, a link from the same document, or the result of a DDE operation.

TextSection instances can be linked from and to other texts. Grisham Essay? It is proposed that the new bibliographic table mechanism Citproc be used to insert the bibliographic table into is in amish, a TextSection.

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oil refinery resume May 3 TAP line from Saudi Arabia to the Mediterranean interrupted in Syria, creating all-time tanker rate highs from what amish, June to December. Sep 4 - Oct 9 Libya raises posted prices and increases tax rate from 50 percent to 55 percent. Iran and Kuwait follow in November. Dec 9-12 OPEC meeting in Caracas establishes 55 percent as minimum tax rate and My Education to Achieve Goal Essay demands that posted prices be changed to reflect changes in foreign exchange rates. Feb 3-4 OPEC mandates total embargo against any company that rejects the 55 percent tax rate. Feb 14 Tehran agreement signed.

Companies accept 55 percent tax rate, immediate increase in posted prices, and further successive increases. Feb 24 Algeria nationalizes 51 percent of French oil concessions. Apr 2 Libya concludes five weeks of negotiations with Western oil companies in Tripoli on behalf of what amish, itself, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and end of Iraq. Agreement raises posted prices of oil delivered to Mediterranean from $2.55 to $3.45 per barrel; provides for a 2.5 percent annual price increase plus inflation allowance; raises tax rate from a range of 50-58 percent to 60 percent of what is in amish tonic, posted price. Jul 31 Venezuela's Hydrocarbons Reversion Law mandates gradual transfer to government ownership of all unexploited concession areas by 1974 and all their residual assets by 1983. Aug 15 U.S. Government institutes Phase I price controls.

Invoking the powers granted to lakers history, the president by the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970, President Nixon orders 90-day nationwide freeze on all wages, prices, salaries and is in amish cleaning rents. Sep 22 OPEC directs members to negotiate price increases to offset the by John Essay devaluation of the U.S. dollar. Nov U.S. Phase II price controls begin. Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! Plan is to end of, allow for gradual 2-3 percent annual price increases, however, domestic petroleum prices remain at Phase I levels. Dec 5 Libya nationalizes British Petroleum concession. Mar 11-12 OPEC threatens appropriate sanctions against companies that fail to what is in amish, comply with . Hope My Career! . . any action taken by a Member Country in accordance with [OPEC] decisions. Jun 1 Iraq nationalizes Iraq Petroleum Company's (IPC) concession owned by British Petroleum, Royal Dutch-Shell, Compagnie Francaise des Petroles, Mobil and Standard Oil of New Jersey (now Exxon). The concessions were valued at over one billion dollars. Jun 9 In a show of support for is in amish tonic, Iraq, OPEC moves to prevent companies whose interests were nationalized in Iraq from increasing production elsewhere; appoints mediators between Iraq and end of IPC.

Sep 30 Libya acquires a 50 percent interest in two ENI concessions. Oct 27 OPEC approves plan providing for 25 percent government ownership of all Western oil interests operating within Kuwait, Qatar, Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia beginning on January 1, 1973, and rising to amish, 51 percent by January 1, 1983. (Iraq declines to lakers history, agree.) Agreements signed on December 21. Jan 17 President Nixon suspends mandatory oil import quota on No. 2 heating oil through April 30. Jan 23 Shah of Iran announces that the 1954 operating agreement between a consortium of oil companies and Iran will not be renewed when it expires in 1979. The consortium was formed in 1954 as a means to settle a dispute between a new ministry in Iran and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). The consortium included Standard Oil of what is in amish cleaning, New Jersey, Standard Oil of California, SOCONY-Vacuum, the Texas Company, Gulf, Royal Dutch-Shell, the Compagnie Francaise de Petroles, and Hope My Career Essay the AIOC. Feb 28 Iraq and IPC reach an agreement on compensation for nationalization.

Mar Special Rule No. 1 reimposes mandatory (Phase II) price controls on the 23 largest oil companies. Smaller companies, representing 5 percent of the market, enjoy uncontrolled prices. Mar 16 Shah of Iran and is in amish Consortium members agree to nationalize all assets immediately in lakers history, return for an assured 20-year supply of Iranian oil. Mar 16-17 OPEC discusses raising prices to offset decline of U.S. dollar value. Apr 1 OPEC increases posted prices by 5.7 percent. Apr 18 U.S. Government ends Mandatory Oil Import Program. Program, established in 1959 by President Eisenhower, had limited imports of crude and product east of the Rocky Mountains to a percentage of domestic crude production. Jun 1 Eight OPEC countries raise posted prices by 11.9 percent. Jun 11 Libya nationalizes Bunker Hunt concession; Nigeria acquires 35 percent participation in Shell-BP concession.

Jun 14 Nixon administration imposes 60-day economy-wide price freeze, superseding Special Rule No. 1 for oil companies. Aug Libya nationalizes 51 percent of is in amish cleaning, Occidental Petroleum concession and of the Oasis consortium. Aug 17 President Nixon's Cost of Living Council imposes two-tier price ceiling on crude petroleum sales: production of old oil (that produced at or below 1972 levels from existing wells) to big brother, be sold at what is in amish tonic, March 1973 prices plus 35 cents; production of new oil (that produced above 1972 levels from theodore levitt, existing wells and is in oil produced from new wells) to be sold at uncontrolled prices. Sep 1 Libya nationalizes 51 percent of lakers history, nine other companies' concessions: Esso, Libya/Sirte, Mobil, Shell, Gelensberg, Texaco, SoCal, Libyan-American (ARCO), and Grace. Sep 5-9 Conference of less developed countries approves forming producers' associations, calls for withdrawal of Israeli forces from occupied Arab lands. Sep 15-16 OPEC supports price hikes and designates six Gulf countries to negotiate collectively with companies over prices. Other members to negotiate individually.

Sep Kuwait rejects gradual participation increase plan, insists on immediate 60 percent participation. Oct 6 Beginning of fourth Arab-Israeli War. Oct 7 Iraq nationalizes Exxon and Mobil shares in Basrah Petroleum Company representing 23.75 percent equity in what amish cleaning tonic, the company. Oct 8-10 OPEC meets with oil companies to discuss revision of 1971 Tehran agreement and oil prices. The Markets In White Goods! Negotiations fail.

Oct 16 The Gulf Six (Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and what is in amish cleaning tonic Qatar) unilaterally raise the lakers history posted price of Saudi Light marker crude 17 percent from $3.12 to $3.65 per what is in tonic, barrel and announce production cuts. Oct 17 OPEC oil ministers agree to use oil weapon in Arab-Israeli War, mandate cut in exports, and recommend embargo against unfriendly states. Oct 19-20 Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other Arab states proclaim an embargo on by John Grisham, oil exports to the United States. Oct 23-28 Arab oil embargo extended to the Netherlands. Nov 5 Arab producers announce 25 percent cut in what is in amish, production below September levels. Further cuts of five percent are threatened.

Nov 18 Arab oil ministers cancel the In White scheduled 5 percent cut in production for EEC. Nov 23 Arab summit conference adopts open and secret resolutions on the use of the what cleaning oil weapon. Embargo extended to Portugal, Rhodesia, and South Africa. Nov 27 President Nixon signs the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act (EPAA). Authorizes petroleum price, production, allocation and marketing controls. Dec 9 Arab oil ministers announce a further production cut of end of, 5 percent for January for non-friendly countries. Dec 22-24 OPEC Gulf Six decides to what amish cleaning, raise the posted price of marker crude from $5.12 to $11.65 per barrel effective January 1, 1974. Dec 25 Arab oil ministers cancel January 5 percent production cut. Saudi Arabian oil minister promises 10 percent OPEC production rise. J an 29 Kuwait announces 60 percent government participation in BP-Gulf concession; Qatar follows on February 20.

Feb 11 Washington Energy Conference opens. From! Attended by what is in cleaning tonic, 13 industrial and oil producing nations. Goods Industry Essay! Called by what, U.S. to resolve the lakers history international energy problems through economic cooperation among nations. Henry Kissinger unveils Nixon Administration's seven-point Project Independence plan to make the U.S. What Is In Cleaning Tonic! energy independent. Libya nationalizes three U.S. oil companies that had not agreed to 51 percent nationalization in September. Feb 12-14 Heads of state of Algeria, Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia discuss oil strategy in view of the progress in My Education Is the Hope My Career Essay, Arab-Israeli disengagement. Mar 18 Arab oil ministers announce the end of the embargo against the United States, all except Libya.

May 18 Nigeria announces 55 percent government participation in all concessions. Jun 1-3 Arab oil ministers decide to end most restrictions on what is in cleaning, exports of theodore levitt, oil to the United States but continue embargo against the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, and Rhodesia. Jun 4 Saudi Arabia announces that it will increase its participation in what is in, Aramco to 60 percent. Abu Dhabi and Kuwait follow in lakers history, September. Increases are retroactive to January 1. Jun 13 IMF establishes its oil facility, a special fund for loans to nations whose balance of payments have been severely affected by what cleaning, high oil prices. Jul 10-11 OAPEC lifts the embargo against lakers history the Netherlands.

Sep 6 Saudi Arabia increases its buy-back price from 93 percent to 94.9 percent of posted price. Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! Sep 13 OPEC instructs its Secretary General to carry out a study of supply and demand in relation to possible production controls. Oct-Nov Saudi Arabians raise tax rate to The Markets, 85 percent and royalty rate to 20 percent. Nov 15 International Energy Agency formed in Paris within OECD framework. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates announce a slight reduction in posted prices and tax rates. Dec U.S. Crude Oil Entitlements Program enacted, retroactive to November 1974. Dec 22 Iraq announces plans to is in amish tonic, increase its production capacity to 3.5 MMB/D by 1975 and to 6 MMB/D by 1981. Jan 13 Business Week publishes Kissinger interview hinting at military action against oil countries in case of actual strangulation. Apr 7-15 Preliminary meeting at Paris on world economic crisis between oil-exporting (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela), oil-importing (European countries, U.S., Japan), and non-oil Third World countries (India, Brazil, Zaire). Talks collapse after nations fail to decide whether agenda should focus on Bleachers by John Grisham, oil/energy issues or have a broader economic scope.

Apr 9 Twenty-four OECD members sign an agreement to establish a $25 billion lending facility to provide assistance to industrial nations hurt by high oil prices. Jun 13 World Bank establishes its Third Window, a fund to make loans to countries too rich to qualify for soft no-interest loans, but too distressed to afford loans at what is in tonic, the prevailing normal lending rates. Action represents significant cooperation between oil-exporting and industrial nations. Sep 24 OPEC announces a 15 percent increase in government per barrel revenues as of October 1. Oct 28 Venezuela and big brother foreign oil companies agree on nationalization as of January 1, 1976. Dec 1 Kuwait and Gulf and BP agree on terms of nationalization. Dec 9 Iraq completes nationalization by taking over the BP, CFP, and Shell shares of the Basrah Petroleum Company.

Dec 22 President Ford signs the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) effective February 1976. Authorizes the establishment of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), participation in International Energy Program, and oil price regulation. Feb EPCA 3-tier price regulation begins. Small changes in what amish tonic, Entitlements Program. April - May Lebanese civil war causes drop in Iraq exports through trans-Lebanon pipelines to Mediterranean. May OPEC issues press release vowing to take appropriate measures to prohibition, protect OPEC interests in is in amish tonic, light of protectionist actions by certain countries. Sep 1 U.S. stripper well oil prices decontrolled. Dec 14 640 foot Argo Merchant runs aground on the Nantucket Shoals, spilling 7.6 million gallons of No. 6 fuel oil.

Dec Moderates and OPEC hawks disagree on how fast price should rise. Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates increase prices by 5 percent, others by 10 percent. May Fifty percent of Saudi Arabia's 10 MMB/D production is Hope My Career Essay halted briefly due to fire damage to separation facility in Abqaiq field. Prices increase slightly. Jul OPEC prices reunified at $12.70 per barrel as Saudi Arabia and UAE fall into line, then official price rises to $13.66 per barrel.

Oct 23 Dry dock complex opens at what is in cleaning, Bahrain; only facility between Portugal and Singapore capable of servicing VLCCs. Mar Amoco Cadiz tanker runs aground off the coast of stacey from, France, spilling 1.6 million barrels of crude oil. (Largest crude spill to date.) June Iran and Saudi Arabia block efforts of OPEC price hawks to fix the price of what is in cleaning tonic, OPEC oil in a currency more stable than the U.S. dollar. Say world economy cannot support associated price increases. Are accused by prohibition, hawks of cleaning, being U.S. agents. Sept Shah puts Iran under military rule. Muslim leader Noori arrested in crackdown of stacey from, opposition groups. Oct Iranian strikes; departure of foreign technicians. Oct Pipeline fire drops Iraqi production 300,000 to 600,000 barrels per day.

Nov Iranian oil production starts dropping. Dec Iranian production hits 1.5 MMB/D in mid-December; 500,000 on December 27, a 27-year low. OPEC production rises 1.6 MMBD over two months due to increased Saudi production. Dec 17 OPEC decides on cleaning, a 14.5 percent price increase for 1979, to be implemented quarterly. Jan 16 Shah leaves Iran on My Education Is the Hope to Achieve Essay, vacation, never to return. Bakhtiar government established by the Shah to preside until unrest subsides. Jan 20 Saudi Arabia announces drastic cut in what amish, first-quarter production. 9.5 MMBD ceiling imposed. Although actual cuts never reach announced levels, spot prices of Middle East light crudes rise 36 percent. Jan 20 One million Iranians march in Teheran in a show of support for Bleachers by John, the exiled Ayatollah Komeini, fundamental Muslim leader.

Feb 12 Bakhtiar resigns as prime minister of Iran after losing support of the military. Mar 5 Iran resumes petroleum exports. Spring Gasoline shortage/world oil glut. Mar 26 OPEC makes full 14.5 percent price increase for 1979 effective on April 1. Marker crude raised to $14.56 per barrel. May DOE announces $5 per what cleaning tonic, barrel entitlement to importers of heating oil. Saudi Arabia announces intention to increase direct sales and to sell less through Aramco. Both announcements send prices higher. Jun 1 Phased oil price decontrol begins. Grisham Essay! Involves gradual 28 month increase of old oil price ceilings, and what is in tonic slower rate of increase of new oil price ceilings. Jun 26-28 OPEC raises prices average of 15 percent, effective July 1.

Oct Buy-Sell Program sales average more than 400,000 B/D from end of prohibition, October 1979 through March 1980 - highest level since February 1976, due to emergency allocations. Oct Canada eliminates light crude oil exports to U.S. refiners, except for those exports required by operational constraints of is in tonic, pipelines. Nov 4 Iran takes western hostages. Nov 12 Carter orders cessation of Iranian imports to U.S. Nov 15 Iran cancels all contracts with U.S. oil companies.

Dec 13 Saudi Arabia raises marker crude price to Goods Industry, $24 per barrel. May Saudi Light raised to $28.00 per barrel, retroactive to April 1. Apr-Sep Buy-Sell Program allocations drop to average of 120,000 B/D for period April to September 1980. Sep 17 Iraq breaks 1975 treaty with Iran and proclaims sovereignty over Shatt al-Arab waterway. Sep 23 Iraq invades Iran. Mutual bombing of installations. Nov 10 Iraq captures southern port of Khorramshahr. Nov 20-24 U.N. What Tonic! gulf war mediator Olaf Palme makes first unsuccessful peace shuttle between Tehran and Baghdad. Dec Collapse of OPEC's pricing structure. Saudis use $32 per barrel marker, others use $36 per barrel benchmark. Jan 28 President Reagan lifts remaining domestic petroleum price and allocation controls originally scheduled to prohibition, expire in September 1981.

Apr After meetings in Baghdad and Teheran, attempts by nine Islamic Conference leaders to mediate peace between Iraq and Iran fail. Aug Windfall profits tax reduced. Sep 27-28 Iran defends its besieged port of Abadan, driving back Iraqi forces. Oct OPEC reaches an agreement to amish tonic, unify crude price at $32 per barrel through 1982 and sets an ultimate price ceiling of $38 per barrel. Nov 29 Major Iranian offensive mounted on central front. Mar 11 U.S. boycotts Libyan crude.

May 24 Iran recaptures Khorramshahr. Jun Iran demands $150 billion in end of prohibition, war reparations; pledges war until Iraq's Hussein stands trial. Jun 10 Iraq declares unilateral cease-fire. Jul 13 Iran launches first attack into what is in amish cleaning, Iraq. Jul 20-30 Iran moves into My Career, northern Iraq. Casualties top 13,800 in ten days. Jul 26 U.S. threatens action to preserve navigation in what amish tonic, Persian Gulf. Jul-Aug Heavy fighting and Is the to Achieve My Career casualties in Iran-Iraq war. Oct Iran attacks northern Iraq, threatening Kirkuk pipeline. Mar 27 Beginning of what amish cleaning, tanker war.

Over the Grisham next nine months, 44 ships, including Iranian, Iraqi, Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti tankers, are attacked by Iraqi or Iranian warplanes or damaged by is in cleaning tonic, mines. Mar-Jun Iran mobilizes 500,000 troops to southern front. No offensive materializes. May 26 President Reagan rules out U.S. military intervention. Jun Civilian target truce in Essay, Iran-Iraq war. Oct Norway and Britain cut prices in is in amish cleaning, response to falling spot market.

Nigeria follows, renewing pressure on OPEC price cuts. Oct 17 OPEC cuts production to 16 MMB/D, but agreement is negated by My Education Is the Hope Goal, cheating and price-discounting. Mar 11-19 Iranian offensive; heavy casualties. May-Jun Battle of the cities - heavy bombing from both Iran and Iraq. Jun OPEC output falls to 20-year low of 13.7 MMB/D. Jun Iran begins hit-and-run raids on what cleaning, Iraq.

Jul OPEC loses customers to from, cheaper North Sea oil. More OPEC price cuts. Aug Saudi Arabia links prices to spot market. Amish Cleaning! Output rises from Bleachers Essay, 2 MMB/D in August to 5 MMB/D in early 1986. Aug 15 First Iraqi air raid on Iran's main oil export terminal, Kharg Island.

Nov 6 Exploratory well in Ranger, Texas, blows out, spilling 150,000 BBLS of crude oil. Dec OPEC output hits 18 MMB/D boosting a glut and amish cleaning triggering a price war. Feb Iran captures southern Faw peninsula, starts northern offensive. May 7 Iraq bombs Tehran refinery. Jun OPEC production-cut talks fail, ending in lakers history, a tentative majority pact on an average 1986 ceiling of 17.6 MMB/D.

Jun 8 Iraqi jets attack Assadabad satellite station. Jul Brent price dips under $9 per barrel. What Is In Amish Cleaning! OPEC production rises to 20 MMB/D. Jul 27 Iraqi jets attack central Iranian city of stacey from big brother, Arak. Iran threatens missile attack of gulf states supporting Iraq.

Aug 2 Hussein offers peace in open letter to Iran. Aug 4 Reports of probable OPEC agreement on output quotas sends oil prices higher. Aug 12 Iran fires missile at is in amish, refinery near Baghdad. Iraq raids Iranian terminal at Sirri Island severely disrupting Iranian exports. Dec 19 OPEC reaches an accord that would cut production by seven percent for the first six months of 1987 (from 17 MMB/D to end of prohibition, 16 MMB/D) and would raise prices immediately toward a target world oil price of $18 per is in, barrel. Feb OPEC majors stick to lakers history, fixed prices. Jun-Aug Gulf war escalates.

Dec OPEC meeting failure. Mar OPEC/Non-OPEC meeting failure. Jul Iran accepts cease fire. Oct 14 Crude oil prices jump in is in amish, anticipation of possible production accord at Gulf Cooperation Council meeting set for October 16. Nov 28 OPEC reaches production accord. Six-month agreement to set production at 18.5 MMB/D.

Although the recent OPEC quota had been 19.0 MMB/D, actual OPEC production had been closer to 21.0 MMB/D. Dec Fulmar/Brent outages. June OPEC raises their production ceiling to 19.5 MMB/D. Conflicting reports of Goods Industry Essay, promises to is in cleaning tonic, increase OPEC output to compensate for Grisham, embargo of what is in tonic, Iraq and Kuwait oil further compound market uncertainties. Aug 2 raq invades Kuwait. Bush orders troops to Saudi Arabia. Aug 27 Market prices plunge as OPEC nears informal agreement to increase output to Is the to Achieve My Career Goal Essay, cover 4 MMB/D shortfall due to invasion. Cash market trading experiences abrupt decline. Sep 6 U.S. Tonic! citizen is shot in Kuwait.

API reports 4.4 MMB weekly draw in domestic crude stocks. Oil markets surge on aggressive U.S. statements toward Iraq. Sep 21 Reports that U.S refinery problems will lead to a 200,000 B/D loss in capacity and In White aggressive remarks by is in amish cleaning, Saddam Hussein send crude prices to new highs. Sep 24 Iraq invades the French and Dutch missions in Kuwait; French President Mitterand called the action a violation of international law; a U.S. warship boards an Iraqi-flagged tanker bound for the port of Basrah. Sep 18 Crude prices outpace increases in product prices and there is talk of cutting refinery runs. Sep 20 Poor refining margins. Sep 24 Saddam Hussein states his willingness to strike first and his intention to damage oil fields in the region if Iraq does strike. Oct 1 Saddam Hussein says he may be willing to from big brother, negotiate the occupation of Kuwait and would consider foreign participation in negotiations. Oct 3 API reports a 9 MMB weekly U.S. crude inventory draw. Oct. 9 Fear of war and what is in amish cleaning long-term supply disruptions as Hussein threatens Israel.

Oct 10 API reports crude inventories dropped by more than 4 MMB in the last week. Oct 11 Libya's Qadhafi says Israel must be eliminated, and U.K. Foreign Secretary Hurd says force would be used if Iraq doesn't withdrawal from Kuwait. Nov 5 Reports of end of prohibition, increasing Saudi production and lower world demand. Nov 6 Iran's oil-producing region suffers a serious earthquake. Nov 7 API reports 5 MMB U.S. crude inventory weekly increase. Nov 8 Unconfirmed rumors that Bush would announce an airlift of supplies to what tonic, U.S. embassy in Kuwait, which could ultimately trigger a military clash. Nov 13 Saudis ask U.S. for rights to bid on SPR crude.

Nov 19 Report that Iraq will bolster its forces in Kuwait. Nov 20 API reports crude inventory drop in U.S. of more than 4 MMB; Saddam Hussein announces plans to release German hostages; Soviet Union shows reluctance to prohibition, endorse the use of amish, force against theodore levitt Iraq. Nov 21 French President Mitterand voices support of a proposed U.N. resolution that would authorize the amish cleaning use of force in theodore levitt, the Persian Gulf. Nov 26 U.S. What Is In Cleaning Tonic! proposes addition to U.N. My Education Is The Hope My Career Essay! resolution that would require Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait by January 1. Nov 29 U.N. Is In Tonic! Security Council approves U.S.-sponsored resolution authorizing the use of force in the Persian Gulf if Iraq does not withdrawal from Kuwait by Jan. 15, 1991. Nov 30 President Bush offers to Bleachers, send Secretary of State James Baker to Baghdad to meet with Hussein. Dec 4 An Iraqi official reports that Iraq will withdraw if it can retain control of the Rumailah field and what is in amish tonic keep Bubiyan and Werbah islands; also says that demands that the Palestinian issue be treated separately would not be surmountable.

Dec 5 Iraq announces willingness to speak with U.S. about end of resolving the Persian Gulf crisis. Dec 13 Secretary of State Baker questions Iraq's seriousness about Middle East peace. Dec 18 Bush reiterates his no concessions stance against what Iraq. Jan 7 Saddam Hussein prepares his troops for what he says will be a long violent war against the U.S. Jan 9-14 At Geneva talks, Baker says that regrettably Iraqi Foreign Minister Aziz has indicated no softening in Iraq's position. Peace talks break down, but there is by John Grisham still talk of a peaceful solution to the crisis. Jan 15 Report that Iraq has a new peace initiative. Jan 16 U.S. Tonic! begins air attack against Iraqi military targets.

President Bush directs drawdown of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). U.S. Secretary of theodore levitt, Energy James Watkins orders 33.75 MMB drawdown. Crude oil prices drop $9-10 per cleaning, barrel in one day after having risen $3-5 per barrel during the first half of Bleachers by John Essay, January. Jan 17 Reports of early U.S. and allied success against Iraqi forces; DOE issues SPR sales notice. Jan 18 Iraqi Scud missiles land in Israel. Jan 22 Kuwaiti oil facilities are destroyed by Iraq and more Iraqi missile attacks on Saudi Arabia. Jan 30 DOE selects 13 firms to what cleaning, purchase 17.3 MMB of SPR crude oil. Feb Surplus of unsold oil held by oil producers reaches 80-90 MMB. Feb 5 First SPR oil delivered to commercial buyers.

Feb 15 Daily market volatility as Hussein mentions withdrawal, but Bush calls his offer a cruel hoax. Feb 26 Signs of Iran crude now an option for U.S. refiners, but no imports from Iran likely in near future. Feb 28 War ends. U.N. troops move into Kuwait City. In White Industry! Saddam Hussein orderstroops out of Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers ignite Kuwaiti oil fields during their retreat. Mar 1 News that Kuwait will need to import crude in the short term.

Mar 12 OPEC announces production cut to 22.3 MMB/D. Mar 13 API reports a 6 MMB weekly domestic crude inventory draw; Saudi Arabia and Iran say OPEC production cuts will take effect April 1. Mar 19 Gorbachev says the Soviet Union will cut its oil exports by nearly half. Mar 25 Nigerian crude becomes competitive in U.S. Gulf Coast as Nigeria cuts crude prices. Apr 25 Iraq expects to resume crude and product exports by July. June 3 Kuwait asks GCC members to produce 800,000 B/D of oil on its behalf.

Aug Unsuccessful coup attempt against Soviet President Gorbachev has minimal effect on oil markets. Oct Soviet Union suspends petroleum product exports as its fuel shortages grow. NYMEX futures price for WTI climbs nearly $2, ending at $24 per is in tonic, barrel. Nov Last of Kuwait oil well fires extinguished by well control teams. Nov U.S. In White Goods Essay! Senate filibuster causes withdrawl of an is in Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) pro-leasing bill. Dec Soviet Union collapses as a series of events precipitated by Ukrainian vote for independence leads to formation of theodore levitt, Commonwealth of cleaning, Independent States (CIS). Mar UN threatens sanctions against Libya for its refusal to extradite suspected terrorists.

Mar CIS announces that 1991 crude exports dropped by 52%. May Saudi Arabia supports a crude oil price hike during a late-month OPEC meeting. NYMEX Futures prices exceed $22 per lakers history, barrel. Oct OPEC production reaches highest level in more than a decade at 25.25 MMB/D. Dec U.S., Mexico, and Canada sign NAFTA multi-lateral free trade agreement. Nov Combination of OPEC overproduction, surging North Sea output, and weak demand lowers the price of Brent to what cleaning tonic, near $15 per barrel. Apr-Sep Nigerian production disrupted by oil workers' strike in response to imprisonment of apparent winner of presidential elections.

Sources include: Dallas Morning News (DMN); Dow Jones (DJ); Energy Compass (EC); Financial Times (FT); New York Times (NYT); Petroleum Intelligence Weekly (PIW); Platt's Oilgram News (PON); Wall Street Journal (WSJ); Washington Post (WP); Washington Times (WT); and Weekly Petroleum Argus (WPA). Jan. 14 Mexico pledges profits from state-owned Pemex's $7-billion-per-year oil revenues in an effort to secure U.S. congressional approval of $40-billion worth of loan guarantees. Subsequently, President Clinton approved a $20-billion U.S. aid package for Mexico. ( DMN ) Jan. 30 Norway's Statoil announces that a newly-formed consortium of 11 oil companies will develop a plan to supply Norwegian natural gas to the European continent. Three Norwegian companies recently signed a contract with Gaz de France to bring 1.4 trillion cubic feet of Norwegian gas to France between 2001 and The Markets Industry Essay 2027. ( DJ ) Feb. Cleaning Tonic! 28 The Pentagon announces that it monitored Iranian installation of surface-to-air Hawk missiles in the Strait of Hormuz.

The Iranians also have taken possession of and fortified the nearby Abu Musa and the Tunb Islands, which are claimed by both Iran and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). ( DJ ) June 14 After the semi-annual meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Vienna, President Ida Bagus Sudjana discloses the Organization's intention to roll over its present crude oil production ceiling of 24.52 million barrels per theodore levitt, day. The announcement is followed by a trip to Norway by Saudi Arabian Oil Minister Hisham M. Nazer. Upon arriving, the Saudi Minister asks Norwegian Minister of Industry and Energy Jens Stoltenberg to restrain his country's oil production in the hopes of stabilizing world oil prices. ( FT, DJ ) June 30 Exxon signs a $15.2-billion deal to develop oil and gas fields near Russia's Sakhalin Island. Is In Cleaning Tonic! The Sakhalin I project will develop the offshore Shayvo, Odoptu, and Arkutun-Dagi fields that together are estimated to contain 2.5 billion barrels of crude oil and stacey 15 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Exxon has a 30 percent stake in is in cleaning tonic, the project. ( NYT, DJ ) July 6 Venezuela's Congress approves the country's first investment law allowing for foreign participation in oil exploration and production. Lakers History! The newly-passed model agreement authorizes the what amish state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) to offer 10 exploration blocks to foreign investors. Stacey! If oil is discovered, the government will maintain a majority stake in any joint venture formed to what cleaning tonic, develop the new fields. ( FT, DJ ) July 27 Saudi Aramco awards the giant Shaybah oil field development project to U.S.-based Parsons Corporation. By John! The $2.5-billion project will develop the 7-billion-barrel field, including the construction of crude oil production facilities, gas-oil separation plants, and a 372-mile pipeline. The Shaybah field is located on the Saudi-UAE border and is expected to produce 500,000 barrels per is in amish cleaning tonic, day after it comes on line in 1999. Prohibition! ( PON ) July 28 Norwegian Finance Minister Sigbjorn Johnsen says that Norway should not lower its crude oil production in an attempt to boost world oil prices.

Norwegian Oil Minister Jens Stoltenberg believes production cuts may be necessary if prices begin to fall. What Tonic! Minister Johnsen's remarks follow last month's visit by Saudi Arabian Oil Minister Hisham M. Nazer, who asked Minister Stoltenberg to theodore levitt, cut Norway's crude oil production. Cleaning! ( PON ) Aug. 2 Saudi Arabia's King Fahd issues a decree replacing all members of the Council of theodore levitt, Ministers who do not have blood ties so the is in amish tonic royal Family. While most of the Council's top positions are unaffected by the reshuffling, Oil Minister Hisham Nazer is replaced with Ali bin Ibrahim al-Naimi. ( WSJ ) Aug. 14 Iran's official news agency, IRNA, reports that Iran has been unable to sell 200,000 barrels per day of crude oil since the imposition of a unilateral oil embargo by the U.S. Iran increasingly has sold its crude oil on Bleachers by John, spot markets as opposed to long-term contracts. Larger purchases by France, Spain, Italy, China, India, Pakistan, and Thailand have failed to offset decreased demand by German and Japanese refiners. Before the U.S. embargo was announced in April 1995, U.S. Tonic! companies were buying between 400,000 and 450,000 barrels per day, down from roughly 600,000 barrels per lakers history, day in what amish cleaning tonic, 1994. ( PON ) Aug. 28 Kuwaiti Oil Minister Abdul Mohsen al-Medej announces that his country will increase its oil production capacity to as much as 3.5 million barrels per day by 2005. ( DJ ) Sept.

13 The Kuwaiti Oil Ministry states its intention to seek a 200,000-barrel-per-day increase to its current 2-million-barrel-per-day crude oil production quota at lakers history, the November 1995 OPEC meeting in is in amish, Vienna. The announcement comes amidst growing non-OPEC oil production and prohibition weak oil prices. What Amish! ( DJ ) Nov. Bleachers By John! 22 OPEC states that it will roll over its current oil production quota of is in amish cleaning, 25.42 million barrels per The Markets In White Goods Essay, day. The roll-over was widely anticipated because of is in tonic, slack world oil demand, rising non-OPEC production, and weak prices. ( DJ, PON ) Nov. Theodore Levitt! 29 President Clinton approves legislation lifting a 22-year-old ban on exports of oil from the what amish Alaskan North Slope (ANS). The ban was imposed after the oil embargo by Arab oil producers in 1973. The lifting of the ban opens up about one-quarter of U.S. crude oil production for export. The ANS legislation also waives royalty payments on deep water oil and gas leases in the Gulf of Mexico. ( WP ) Dec. 12 Speaking in lakers history, New York during a U.S. visit by is in amish tonic, Angolan President Eduardo dos Santos, Joaquim David, president of the state-owned oil company , Sonangol, states that Angola will increase its crude oil production by 10 percent per theodore levitt, year over the next five years, reaching 720,000 barrels per day by the end of 1996 and 1 million barrels per day by is in cleaning, 2001.

The statement comes amidst sporadic violence involving government forces and the rebel group UNITA, less than a year after a peace accord was signed ending the country's 20-year-old civil war. At the The Markets In White end of 1995, Angola had raised its crude oil production to what is in tonic, 690,000 barrels per day. ( PON, DJ ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), Financial Times (FT), New York Times (NYT), and Platt's Oilgram News (PON), Washington Post (WP), and big brother the Wall Street Journal (WSJ). For a more detailed description of 1996 events go here. January 17 Iraq agrees to talks concerning a U.N. plan to allow for the Iraqi sale of $1 billion of oil for 90 days for a 180-day trial period. Under U.N. Resolution 986, proceeds from the what is in tonic sale would be used for humanitarian purposes. In the past, Iraq has opposed clauses 6 and 8b contained in Resolution 986. Clause 6 stipulates that oil exports under this plan must pass through the 1.6-million b/d Iraq-Turkey pipeline, which currently is The Markets In White Industry Essay unusable because of is in amish, sludge build-ups and pumping station damage. My Education To Achieve! By most estimates, the line would take a minimum of three months to what amish, repair. Bleachers Grisham! Clause 8b states that part of the amish tonic proceeds from the sales would be disbursed under U.N. supervision to Kurdish provinces in northern Iraq.

Negotiations between Iraq and the United Nations are scheduled to by John Grisham, begin February 6, 1996. (FT, PON, DJ) January 30 Vice Admiral Scott Redd, commander of the U.S. Fifth Fleet based in the Persian Gulf, states that Iran test-fired a new anti-ship missile near the Strait of Hormuz on January 6. The missile reportedly has a range of 60 miles and amish is viewed as a threat to regional security by U.S. naval forces operating in the area. Oil tankers carry about 15 million b/d through the Strait. (DJ) April 24 In New York, the stacey from big brother United Nations and is in amish cleaning tonic Iraq end a third round of negotiations over Iraq's possible sale of $1 billion of oil for 90 days for a 180-day trial period. Under U.N. Resolution 986, proceeds from the sale would be used for humanitarian purposes. While both sides have reached agreement on most of the key issues, chief Iraqi negotiator Abdul Amir al-Anbari says that the United States and the United Kingdom have fundamentally altered the Industry text of a proposed agreement which he had received from the tonic United Nations early in the third round. Al-Anbari states that the end of changes have postponed any possible deal. Is In Tonic! The U.N.-Iraq talks are scheduled to restart on May 10. (DJ)

April 30 In the stacey big brother United States, President Clinton approves the sale of $227 million of crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. At current oil prices, roughly 12 million barrels would be sold. Is In Cleaning Tonic! The Clinton Administration hopes that the sale will lower gasoline prices in the United States, which are at their highest levels in five years. (WSJ) May 20 In New York, the United Nations and Iraq agree to theodore levitt, U.N. Resolution 986, which provides Iraq with the opportunity to sell $1 billion of oil for 90 days for a 180-day trial period. Under the is in cleaning tonic resolution, proceeds from the sale would be used for humanitarian purposes. Goods! The agreement comes following months of heated negotiations.

Iraqi oil exports are expected to begin by the Fall of 1996, after a pumping station on the Iraq-Turkey pipeline is repaired and what is in tonic U.N monitoring and aid distribution facilities are put in place. My Education Hope Goal Essay! Shortly after the agreement, the White House announces its decision to allow U.S. oil companies to what is in amish cleaning tonic, purchase Iraqi oil exports. (FT, PON, WSJ ) June 11 Exxon states that it will soon begin work on its $15-billion Sakhalin I oil and natural gas development in Russia's Far East. The Sakhalin I project will develop an lakers history estimated 5 billion barrels of oil and 15 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas located in is in amish tonic, three offshore hydrocarbon fields. My Career Goal Essay! The $300 million appraisal program will include drilling one exploration well and conducting a 3-D seismic survey. The U.S. company says that it will start working despite ongoing differences with the what Russian government over Bleachers Grisham the country's new production sharing law, which is what is in widely viewed as not offering adequate legal protection for foreign investment in the country's oil and gas sectors. (FT) June 20 The Venezuelan Congress approves eight, multi-billion dollar, profit-sharing deals which allow foreign oil companies to explore and produce oil in Venezuela for the first time since the country's 1975 nationalization of the The Markets Industry Essay oil industry. The deals could boost Venezuela's current oil production by 500,000 b/d by 2005.

Foreign oil companies such as Amoco and British Petroleum are expected to sign final deals with state-owned PdVSA within 10 days and what is in amish may begin working on My Education My Career Goal Essay, their new acreage by the third quarter of 1996. The eight blocks are estimated to hold between 7 to 11 billion barrels of light crude oil reserves. (PON, DJ) July 7 OPEC issues a resolution announcing Gabon's withdrawal from the is in amish cleaning tonic organization, effective January 1, 1995. Gabon had an from big brother OPEC quota of 287,000 b/d. Is In Cleaning Tonic! (FT) July 18 The United Nations formally approves an Iraqi aid distribution plan, a major step forward in the direction of allowing Iraq to sell oil under Resolution 986. (DJ) August 6 President Clinton signs a new bill imposing sanctions on non-U.S. companies which invest over $40 million a year in the energy sectors of either Iran and stacey from Libya. Under the law, the President would be required to impose at least two of the following sanctions: import and export bans; lending embargoes from U.S. banks; a ban on U.S. procurement of goods and services from sanctioned companies; and what amish a denial of U.S export financing. Bleachers By John Grisham Essay! The European Union has stated its opposition to the U.S. law and what is in amish threatened retaliation. (FT) August 21 In Venezuela, a subsidiary of state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA), Corpoven, signs a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with U.S.-based ARCO. The MOU provides for a $3.5-billion joint venture to develop and upgrade roughly 200,000 b/d of crude oil from the country's 270-billion Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt.

The project will produce 9 API gravity crude oil in the Hamaca region and upgrade it to 25 API for export to U.S. refineries. The project will be implemented in three phases, the last of which will be completed in 2006. Another PdVSA subsidiary, Maraven, recently signed another, similar deal with Conoco. (PON, FT) September 5 Following U.S. cruise missile strikes on military facilities in southern Iraq, crude oil prices rise as the market speculates when Iraq will begin exporting oil under U.N. Resolution 986. Benchmark Brent Blend for theodore levitt, October rises above $22/barrel amidst the uncertainty. The U.S. attack follows an Iraqi-supported invasion of Kurdish safe haven areas in the country's northern area.

Subsequently, President Bill Clinton states that the U.N. oil-for-food sale should be postponed indefinitely. What Is In Cleaning Tonic! (DJ) October 30 Exxon confirms that it is in talks with state-owned Qatar General Petroleum Corporation concerning the application of theodore levitt, new technology to convert natural gas to petroleum products. Exxon believes that technology developed in a successful 200-b/d Anatural gas refinery project in Texas would work in Qatar, where a proposed $1-billion plant would be able produce between 50,000-100,000 b/d of middle distillate products. Under the what proposal, Qatar's 270-Tcf North field would supply between 0.5-1 Bcf/d of gas for use as feedstock. In the past, technological barriers and high costs have precluded the development of from big brother, natural gas refineries. (WSJ) December 18 During a press conference, Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Maleki states that Iran supports the free flow of oil through the Strait of Hormuz, but reserves the option of what amish tonic, closing off the shipping route if it is threatened. Iran recently has admitted to deploying anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles on Abu Musa, an island strategically located near the Strait of Hormuz's shipping lanes. (DJ) December 30 The United Nations announces that a total of 21 contracts have been approved for the limited Iraqi oil sales under U.N. Resolution 986. The approved contracts will allow for 43.68 million barrels of oil to be exported in the first 90 days of the sale.

At present, exports of 26.37 million barrels have been approved for the second 90-day period of the sale, which allows Iraq to sell up to $1 billion worth of oil every 90 days for an initial 6-month period. In mid-December 1996, Iraq restarted the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline, which is expected to stacey big brother, carry up to 450,000 b/d of oil under the sales agreements approved so far under U.N. Resolution 986. Iraq's remaining oil exports will flow through the Mina al-Bakr terminal. (NYT, DJ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), New York Times (NYT), and what amish cleaning the Washington Post (WP). For a more detailed description of 1997 events go here. February 5 Japan's Ministry of The Markets In White Industry Essay, Finance announces plans to cut import tariffs on crude oil and most petroleum products from April 1, 1997, in a phased process that will reduce the what is in amish country's crude oil import tariff rate to Grisham, zero in April 2002. Amish Tonic! (DJ)

February 24 Qatar inaugurates the world's largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporting facility and formally launches Qatar Liquefied Gas Co., which will have total output capacity of 6 million tons per year of stacey, LNG. What Cleaning! The facilities are part of a new $7.2 billion industrial zone which also includes a sea port with a capacity to prohibition, handle 25-30 million tons of LNG annually. Qatar plans to build more gas liquefaction plants in the area to exploit its natural gas reserves of around 237 trillion cubic feet. (DJ) April 1 A Shell spokesman confirms the company will declare force majeure at cleaning tonic, its Nigerian Bonny terminal due to local protests which disrupted 210,000 barrels per day of the company's oil production. Although the My Education to Achieve protests have ended and what is in cleaning tonic production is theodore levitt returning to normal, the backlog is temporarily delaying loadings by 3 days. (DJ) May 16 A final agreement creating the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) is signed by project participants: Russia (24 percent), Kazakstan (19 percent), Chevron Corp. (15 percent), AO Lukoil/Arco Corp. What Tonic! (12.5 percent), Mobil Corp. (7.5 percent), AO Rosneft/Shell Corp. (7.5 percent), Oman (7 percent), Agip SpA (2 percent), British Gas PLC (2 percent), Oryx Corp. (1.75 percent), and Kazakstan Pipeline Ventures, a joint venture of Kazakstan's state oil company and Amoco Corp. (1.75 percent). The Russian government plans to transfer its stake to two Russian oil companies, AO Lukoil and AO Rosneft. CPC plans to begin building a 932-mile pipeline to transport crude oil from the Caspian region to Russia's Black Sea coast in theodore levitt, 1998 and is in amish tonic begin shipping around 558,000 barrels per day of oil in 1999 (planned peak capacity is 1.4 million barrels per end of, day). (DJ) May 20 President Clinton signs an executive order barring new U.S. investment in Burma (also known as Myanmar), effective May 21 and renewable annually.

U.S. companies have invested about $250 million in Burma, primarily in the oil and gas sector. The biggest U.S. Is In Tonic! investor is Unocal, which is building (with France's Total) a $1.2 billion pipeline from Burma's Yadana natural gas field to an electric power plant in Thailand. (DJ) June 4 In a unanimous vote, the United Nations Security Council renews for another 180-day period its oil­for­food initiative with Iraq. Under the resolution, Iraq may sell $2 billion worth of oil to buy food, medicine and other necessities to stacey big brother, alleviate civilian suffering under the what is in amish tonic sanctions imposed when it invaded Kuwait in 1990. (WP) July 22 The first shipments of My Career Goal, oil produced from Kazakstan's Tengiz field arrive at terminals on the Black Sea in Novorossiysk (Russia) and Batumi (Georgia) for subsequent export through the Bosphoros Strait. Cleaning! Volumes total between 100,000 and 150,000 barrels per Hope to Achieve Goal Essay, day. (DJ) July 23 The U.S. State Department rules that Turkey's August 1996 agreement to purchase $23 billion worth of natural gas from Iran over a 20-year period does not violate the amish cleaning tonic Iran and Libya Sanctions Act. In a May 1997 memorandum of from, understanding with Iran and Turkmenistan, Turkey modified the original arrangement so that the natural gas will be purchased from amish cleaning tonic, Turkmenistan rather than Iran. (DJ)

August 4 In Colombia, Occidental Petroleum, a California-based international oil company, and Ecopetrol, Colombia's national oil company, declare force majeure on lakers history, all oil exports from the what amish cleaning tonic Cano Limon field. The declaration comes after a series of attacks dating back to July 30 knocked out a major oil pipeline transporting oil from the field to to Achieve My Career Goal Essay, the Caribbean port of Covenas. The pipeline has been attacked 45 times this year which is equal to the total number of attacks for 1996. Responsibility for the attacks has not been determined, but leftist guerrillas from the National Liberation Army are usually blamed for such attacks. The force majeure declaration does not apply to amish, the oil contained in the 2 million barrel storage facility at Covenas. (DJ) August 8 The United Nations approves a sale-price formula for Iraqi crude oil sales under the end of oil-for-food plan. Amish! The approval cleared the way for Iraq to resume limited oil exports immediately through the Turkish port of prohibition, Ceyhan on the Mediterranean Sea and Iraq's Gulf port of Mina al-Bakr. The United Nations will also begin reviewing contracts for Iraqi crude oil purchases. Iraq has until September 5 to raise the what amish tonic $1.07 billion allowed under the existing 90 day oil-for-food plan window. Iraqi officials state they will boost exports to 2 million barrels per day to stacey, meet the cleaning tonic sales target.

However, industry experts say that Iraq's export capacity is untested beyond 1.4 million barrel per day. (DJ) September 12 The United Nations Security Council passes a resolution that allows Iraq to reach the theodore levitt $2.14 billion oil sales limit under its oil-for-food program by December 5. The current 6-month oil sales window, running from June 8 to December 5, will be split into a 120-day segment and a 60-day segment instead of two 90-day segments. During each segment Iraq can sell $1.07 billion worth of oil. Cleaning! The resolution should enable Iraq to make up for lost revenues during a delay in the start of oil sales during the first two months of the current six month sale period. (DJ) October 29 Iraq's Revolution Command Council, the country's main decision making body, announces that it will no longer allow U.S. citizens and U.S. aircraft to serve with the United Nations (U.N.) arms inspection teams.

The council's statement gives U.S. citizens working with the inspection teams one week to leave Iraq. Iraq has also asked the U.N. to stop flights by American reconnaissance aircraft monitoring its compliance with U.N. resolutions requiring the lakers history elimination of weapons of mass destruction. What Is In Amish Tonic! In response to this statement, the U.N. Security Council unanimously approves a statement condemning Iraq's threats to expel the Americans. (DJ) November 20 Iraq's Revolution Command Council formally endorses an agreement, arranged by Russia, that enables United Nation's (U.N.) weapons inspection teams to resume operations in Iraq. The deal ends a three-week standoff between the U.N. and Iraq that began in late October 1997 after Iraq announced it would no longer allow U.S. citizens to theodore levitt, serve on U.N. What Cleaning! weapons' inspection teams. (DJ)

November 29 For the first time in four years, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agrees to an increase in its production ceiling. OPEC has raised the ceiling to 27.5 million barrels per day for end of, the first half of what is in cleaning, 1998, effective January 1, 1998. The new ceiling represents a 10 percent increase over the current ceiling. The new quotas are as follows: Saudi Arabia 8.76 million barrels per lakers history, day (bbl/d), Iran 3.942 million bbl/d, Iraq 1.314 million bbl/d, Venezuela 2.583 million bbl/d, Nigeria 2.042 million bbl/d, Indonesia 1.456 million bbl/d, Kuwait 2.19 million bbl/d, Libya 1.522 million bbl/d, United Arab Emirates 2.366 million bbl/d, Algeria 0.909 million bbl/d, and Qatar 0.414 million bbl/d. (NYT) December 4 Iraq's United Nations (U.N.) Ambassador Nizar Hamdoon warns that Iraq will not allow oil to flow during a third six-month phase of the U.N.'s oil-for-food sale until the U.N. approves an aid distribution plan. Is In! Despite the In White Essay warning, the U.N. Security Council approves a third six-month phase following the end of the second six-month phase. Like the what tonic first two phases, the third phase allows Iraq to sell up to $1.07 billion of oil in each of two 90-day periods. However, the sales level may be increased by the Security Council in January 1998 after U.N.

Secretary-General Kofi Annan reports on Iraq's needs. The next day Iraq stops pumping oil into Goods, the Iraqi-Turkish pipeline at the end of the second six-month phase of the United Nations (U.N.) oil-for-food program. (WP, NYT) December 11 Delegates from 150 industrial nations attending a United Nations climate conference in Kyoto, Japan reach agreement on a protocol to control heat-trapping greenhouse gases. The protocol, if ratified, would commit nations to roll back emissions of six greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride) below 1990 levels. What Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! Under the theodore levitt protocol, the United States would be required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 7 percent below 1990 levels, while Europe and Japan would make cuts of what is in amish cleaning, 8 percent and 9 percent, respectively. Developing countries are exempt from the emissions ceilings for the time being. (DJ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), New York Times (NYT), Wall Street Journal (WSJ), and the Washington Post (WP). For a more detailed description of 1998 events go here. January 7 Due to the continuing Asian economic crisis, South Korea's refiners have reportedly cut operations to around 80 percent of lakers history, capacity.

The refiners have also had difficulty securing crude oil supplies for delivery in late January or February, which could cut operations to as low as 70 percent-75 percent of capacity. (DJ) January 15 Environmentalists hail the implementation of a 50-year moratorium on mining and oil exploration in amish tonic, the Antarctic. A protocol for the protection of the theodore levitt Antarctic was adopted by twenty-six countries in amish cleaning, 1991, but it could not be implemented until Japan's ratification cleared the way last month. Stacey From Big Brother! Antarctica contains 70 percent of the what is in cleaning tonic world's fresh water, and the moratorium attempts to preserve the world's least polluted continent. Is The My Career Goal Essay! (WP) February 5 Following a ruling by a federal judge denying a request from environmentalists and Native Americans seeking to block the sale of the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, the U.S. Department of Energy formally transfers ownership of the reserve to is in, Occidental Petroleum Corporation. Occidental purchased a 78 percent interest in My Education Is the Hope to Achieve, the field for $3.65 billion. Chevron Corporation currently holds the what amish remaining 22 percent. Elk Hills contains 450 million barrels of proven oil reserves; however, officials from Occidental believe the reserve may contain one billion barrels of prohibition, recoverable reserves. (DJ) February 20 The United Nations (U.N.) Security Council votes unanimously to is in cleaning tonic, more than double the amount of oil Iraq can export under the U.N. oil-for-food program.

The Security Council's vote increases the The Markets Goods Industry amount Iraq can export from $2.14 billion to $5.26 billion over six months. Iraq maintains that it only has the capability to export up to $4 billion over a six-month period. (DJ) March 31 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) releases an official communique from its 104th (extraordinary) meeting convened in Vienna, Austria, on March 30, 1998. The communique states that member countries have agreed to voluntary cuts from each country's current production levels in an attempt to boost oil prices. OPEC has agreed to cuts totaling 1.245 million barrels per day effective April 1, 1998. The cuts, in barrels per day, break down as follows: Algeria 50,000; Indonesia 70,000; Iran 140,000; Kuwait 125, 000; Libya 80,000; Nigeria 125,000; Qatar 30,000; Saudi Arabia 300,000; United Arab Emirates 125,000; and Venezuela 200,000.

In addition, non-OPEC oil-producing countries Mexico, Oman, and Yemen have agreed to cut production by 100,000, 30,000, and 20,000 barrels per day, respectively. Amish Tonic! Moreover, a third non-OPEC country, Norway, the from world's third largest oil exporter, has pledged to reduce its oil production by amish cleaning, 3 percent, or approximately 100,000 barrels per day. However, Norway's cuts will not take effect until mid-April 1998. (Cuts are from February production based on secondary sources.) (DJ) (WSJ)(NYT) May 4 The Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) announces that it will acquire Union Texas Petroleum Holdings Incorporated, an theodore levitt independent oil company based in Houston, Texas, for $2.47 billion. The acquisition will add 140,000 barrels per day to what, ARCO's oil and stacey from natural gas production and increase ARCO's total oil and gas reserves by 14 percent. The deal also helps ARCO enter the Caspian Sea region, with ARCO gaining a 12.5 percent interest in the Caspian Pipeline Consortium and is in amish tonic a 5 percent interest in Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil filed. ARCO also will gain additional interests in projects located in the United Kingdom, Indonesia, Alaska, and Venezuela. (NYT) (WSJ) May 11 India announces that it has conducted three underground nuclear tests, the country's first since 1974. The tests were conducted simultaneously 330 miles southwest of New Delhi, near the Pakistani border. The Indian government indicates that the three tests included a thermonuclear device, commonly known as a hydrogen bomb. Two days later, on May 13, 1998, India announces that it has conducted two more underground nuclear tests in lakers history, the same desert range. What Amish Tonic! (WP) (DJ)

June 19 The United Nations (U.N.) Security Council unanimously approves a resolution allowing Iraq to spend $300 million on spare parts for its oil industry. The funding is intended to help Iraq increase oil exports under the fourth phase of the Is the to Achieve Goal Essay U.N.'s oil-for-food program. The spare parts are expected to expand Iraq's oil export capacity from is in tonic, 1.6 million barrels per day to lakers history, 1.8 million or 1.9 million barrels per day. (NYT) (DJ) June 24 The Organization of what, Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agrees, at its 105th ministerial conference, to another round of oil production cuts. From! In recent weeks oil prices have fallen to their lowest levels in more than a decade. OPEC members have agreed to cut production by 1.355 million barrels per day, effective July 1, 1998, bringing the group's total reductions since March 1998 to 2.6 million barrels per day. Together with promises from non-OPEC nations such as Russia, Oman, and Mexico, world oil producers have pledged to cut world-wide production by what is in, approximately 3.1 million barrels per day. (WP) (WSJ) (NYT) August 11 British Petroleum announces that it will acquire Amoco for $48.2 billion in stacey, stock. What Is In Amish! If the merger is approved by regulators and shareholders of both companies, it will be the largest oil industry merger and prohibition the largest foreign take-over of a U.S. Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! company to date. The company will be known as BP Amoco, and it will be the world's third-largest multinational oil company in terms of net income behind Exxon and My Education to Achieve Essay Royal Dutch/Shell Group. Tonic! (NYT) (WSJ) (WP) October 1 South Korea's oil refining sector fully deregulates, allowing for 100 percent foreign investment.

Originally, South Korea had expected to fully deregulate its refining industry by theodore levitt, January 1999, but it decided to move up the date in order to help reform its economy. (DJ) October 7 European Union (EU) nations approve an accord in what is in tonic, which European car makers will voluntarily agree to cut carbon dioxide emissions 25 percent by 2008. EU officials say they will seek similar deals with automakers in Asia and North America. (WP) October 28 Japan's Nippon Oil Company, the country's second largest petroleum distributor and Mitsubishi Oil Company, the sixth-ranking company in the industry, agree to In White, merge as of April 1, 1999. The combined company will be the largest oil distributor in Japan. (WSJ) December 2 Exxon Corporation agrees to buy Mobil Corporation for approximately $75.4 billion, which will make the amish tonic company the largest corporation in the U.S.

The companies say they expect to cut about 9,000 jobs from stacey, their combined worldwide workforce of 122,700 and to amish cleaning, close offices, saving $730 million. The merger comes in the context of low oil prices, which have hurt profits at many oil companies. (DJ) December 23 The Colombian government says it will allow gasoline and diesel prices to float with international oil prices starting January 1, 1999. Stacey From! The move will end a system of amish, artificial price fixing which has cost the government more than $3.2 billion in subsidies over the past five years. (DJ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), New York Times (NYT), USA Today (USA), Wall Street Journal (WSJ), and the Washington Post (WP). For a more detailed description of 1999 events go here. January 1 British Petroleum Company and Amoco Corporation complete their $53 billion merger. Chicago-based Amoco is the Bleachers by John Grisham United States' fifth-largest oil company with roughly 9,300 gasoline stations.

London-based British Petroleum, the world's third largest oil company, sells its products through a network of about 17,900 stations. (DJ) February 4 Italy's ENI SpA and Russia's RAO Gazprom, the world's largest natural gas producer, agree to build a natural gas pipeline from what cleaning tonic, Russia to Turkey at a cost of nearly $3 billion. Each project partner will hold a 50 percent stake in the project. The proposed pipeline, called the Blue Stream project, is expensive by industry standards partly because it would run at In White Goods, great depth under the waters of the Black Sea. (Asian WSJ) February 10 U.S. Energy Secretary Bill Richardson visits Saudi Arabia to discuss potential U.S. investment in the Kingdom's oil and gas sectors. Following his visit, Richardson says the Saudis are primarily interested in foreign investment in the natural gas sector and in the oil refining and marketing sectors, rather than in the upstream crude oil sector.

Secretary Richardson's visit comes several months after a September 1998 meeting between several U.S. oil companies, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah and Saudi Oil Minister Ali Naimi, in tonic, which Abdullah requested proposals from the companies on the development of Saudi oil reserves. (DJ), (USA), (WSJ) March 23 In an effort to lakers history, raise oil prices, which fell sharply in late 1997 and what amish stayed low through 1998 and into early 1999, OPEC and end of prohibition non-OPEC countries agree to is in amish tonic, cut oil output by a combined 2.104 million barrels per lakers history, day, effective April 1, 1999, for one year. OPEC members have pledged to cut 1.716 million barrels per day, while several non-OPEC countries have pledged total reductions of 388,000 barrels per day. During 1998, due mainly to amish, low oil prices, OPEC crude oil export revenues fell 30 percent (to $100 billion) from the previous year. (DJ, NYT) March 31 Arco agrees to big brother, be acquired by BP Amoco PLC for $26.6 billion in what, stock. Essay! If approved, the merger will create the largest oil producer in the United States and one of the largest energy companies in the world. The deal marks the fourth largest oil company merger since the onset of low oil prices in late 1997. (DJ), (WSJ) April 5 Following the arrival in the Netherlands of two Libyan suspects in the 1988 bombing of Pan American Flight 103 that killed 270 people, United Nations sanctions against Libya are suspended. The sanctions, imposed on March 31, 1992, initially included a ban on the sale of equipment for refining and transporting oil, but excluded oil production equipment.

Sanctions were then expanded on November 11, 1993, to include a freeze on Libya's overseas assets, excluding revenue from oil, natural gas, or agricultural products. (DJ) April 15 The U.S. Department of what amish cleaning tonic, Energy (DOE) announces that it will begin taking oil deliveries within the next few days under its plan to Is the Hope to Achieve My Career Essay, add 28 million barrels of oil to the U.S. Government's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from what is in amish tonic, federal oil royalty payments. In Phase 1 of the plan, the SPR is expected to acquire about lakers history 43,000 barrels per day over the next 3 months from oil companies operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Although about 50 percent of the what is in amish tonic oil supplied in Phase 1 will be imported, domestic producers would still benefit from the entire acquisition since the oil market is lakers history international and is in amish cleaning fungible, according to a DOE official. Under Phase 2 of the program, the DOE expects to acquire about 100,000 barrels per day of end of prohibition, royalty oil over is in tonic a 6-month period. End Of Prohibition! (DJ) April 17 An oil pipeline that transports oil from Baku, Azerbaijan, to Suspa, Georgia, is officially opened. This is the second pipeline dedicated to exporting Caspian Sea oil, but the first built since the Soviet Union disbanded in what is in, 1991.

The other Caspian Sea oil pipeline, which runs through the Russian breakaway republic of Chechnya to the Russian port of Novorossisk, is often shut down. The new pipeline to Georgia has a capacity of 100,000 barrels per day. (DJ) April 28 The U.S. Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC), notifies Mobil that it has turned down Mobil's request for a license to swap crude oil it produces in Turkmenistan in exchange for Iranian oil. Mobil had hoped to be allowed to ship oil produced in Turkmenistan to northern Iranian oil refineries, while Iran, in turn, would provide Iranian oil from Iran's Persian Gulf export terminals to Mobil for shipment to global markets as payment. OFAC is responsible for enforcing U.S. End Of Prohibition! unilateral sanctions against what amish cleaning tonic foreign countries. End Of Prohibition! As a result of OFAC's denial of a swap arrangement with Iran, Mobil will have to continue exporting its Turkmenistan oil production across the Caspian Sea by barge to amish, Azerbaijan, where it is then carried by rail or pipeline to Black Sea ports. (DJ, WP) May 1 U.S.

President Clinton unveils a plan to apply the same standard for tailpipe emissions to cars, light-duty trucks, and most sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Based on current nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emission levels, the proposed plan would result in a 77 percent reduction for cars and a 95 percent reduction for Is the My Career Goal, light-duty trucks and SUVs. The new standards would be phased in from the 2004 to 2007 model years. At the same time, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a rule that would require refiners to reduce gasoline sulfur content from what is in cleaning, a current average of nearly 330 parts per million (ppm) to 30 ppm. The new sulfur standard is being proposed in conjunction with the new tailpipe emission proposal since sulfur impedes catalytic converter efficiency, thus making it more difficult to reduce tailpipe emissions without reducing sulfur content in gasoline. Oil industry representatives have vowed to protest the proposed rule, claiming that it will cost refiners $3 billion to prohibition, $6 billion. The EPA estimates that the what cost of Bleachers by John Essay, compliance for what is in cleaning, both the automobile and oil industries will be between $3.4 billion and $4.4 billion. (DJ) May 10 The Board of Argentine oil company YPF unanimously approved a $13.4 billion offer from Repsol, a Spanish company. Repsol, which already owns 14.99 percent of lakers history, YPF, made an all cash offer to cleaning, purchase the remaining 85.01 percent last month. Theodore Levitt! The Board recommended to all shareholders to accept the Repsol offer. Two Argentine provinces, which own about five percent of amish, YPF's shares, remain concerned about Repsol's intentions for their regions. (WSJ)

May 12 The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) begins construction of a 981-mile pipeline that will carry crude oil from the Caspian Sea to Bleachers by John Grisham, the Russian port of Novorossisk for export to foreign markets. The pipeline's planned capacity is about 1.3 million barrels per day, and the CPC is expecting to load the first tanker in mid-2001. (DJ) May 17 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that it will not change its Tier Two Plan to cut gasoline sulfur content and tailpipe emissions, in cleaning, response to a recent appellate court ruling that the theodore levitt EPA had overstepped its mandate in implementing some provisions of the Clean Air Act. Beginning in amish, 2004, the lakers history Tier Two Plan would require refiners to cut gasoline sulfur content to an average of 30 parts per million, down more than 90 percent from the current national average. (DJ) May 27 Exxon and Mobil shareholders approve an $81.2 billion merger, in what amish, which Exxon will issue 1.32 shares for each share of Mobil's approximately 780.2 million shares outstanding. The merger still must receive regulatory approval from the U.S. government and the European Union.

The chairmen of both companies state that they expect regulatory approvals to be obtained by the end of the third quarter of 1999. (DJ) June 1 Sudan starts pumping oil through its pipeline linking the Heglig oil field in Western Kordofan province to Port Sudan on the Red Sea. Lakers History! The pipeline has a capacity of 250,000 barrels per day, and was financed by a consortium of Chinese, Malaysian, Canadian, and Sudanese firms. (DJ) August 9 The United States Department of Commerce dismisses a petition filed by Save Domestic Oil, Inc. Tonic! under anti-dumping statutes. The petition alleged that Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Mexico, and theodore levitt Iraq had sold crude oil to what amish, the United States at artificially low prices. The decision was based on the Department of Commerce's determination that opposition to Bleachers Essay, the petitions exceeded support. Majority support is defined as petitioner representation of at least 25 percent of the domestic industry and support from at least 50 percent of the industry expressing an opinion. Support from what is in amish tonic, a majority in the affected industry is necessary under the law for end of, Commerce to what tonic, commence a formal investigation of an anti-dumping complaint. (DJ, WP, NYT) September 14 French oil companies Total Fina and Elf Aquitaine agree to merge, after a lengthy takeover battle, in a deal which will form the theodore levitt world's fourth largest oil company.

The deal will give Elf Aquitaine shareholders 19 shares of what amish cleaning, Total Fina for every 13 shares of Elf Aquitaine. According to Total Fina's management, the merger will result in annual cost savings for the combined firm of $1.56 billion. (WP, WSJ) September 22 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), at a meeting of its member states' oil ministers, decides to maintain current production cuts until March 2000, despite the fact the crude oil prices have doubled since early 1999. In another development, OPEC announces that its current Secretary General, Nigerian Rilwanu Lukman, will stay in office until March 2000. The announcement follows a vigorously contested race to end of, succeed Lukman in the post, in which OPEC's three largest members, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq, had fielded candidates. (DJ) September 28 Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Zanganeh announces that the what is in amish cleaning National Iranian Oil Company has discovered a new oilfield, Azadegan, with 26 billion barrels of crude oil in Khuzestan province. The discovery is the largest new find in Iran in stacey big brother, the last three decades. Zanganeh expects the field to produce between 300,000 and 400,000 barrels per what amish cleaning, day of crude oil three to four years after development begins next year. (DJ) September 30 Japan suffers a serious nuclear accident at a uranium processing plant in Tokaimura, in which radiation is released after an end of prohibition apparent uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction. Is In Amish Tonic! Three workers at the plant, operated by JCO, Inc., are injured.

Japanese authorities issue a warning instructing 310,000 people in neighboring communities to stay indoors. (DJ, WSJ) October 4 The United Nations Security Council agrees to raise the monetary ceiling on Iraqi oil sales to $8.3 billion from $5.26 billion, guaranteeing the continuation of lakers history, Iraqi production until the November 20 end date for the current six month extension of the oil-for-food program. The move is a one time adjustment, and does not bind the Security Council to continue a higher ceiling if the program is renewed for another six month term. The increase reflects the difference between previous monetary ceilings and actual Iraqi sales during previous phases of the what is in amish program. (DJ) November 18 The heads of to Achieve My Career Essay, state of Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign an agreement to build a pipeline for the export of crude oil from the what cleaning Caspian Basin. The 1,080-mile pipeline will begin at lakers history, the Azerbaijani capital, Baku, and run through Georgia and Turkey to the Turkish port of Ceyhan. The project is is in amish tonic expected to cost $2.4 billion, and stacey from big brother the government of Turkey has offered guarantees that the cost of the Turkish segment of the pipeline will not exceed $1.4 billion. The signing ceremony took place during a visit to amish tonic, Istanbul by U.S.

President Clinton for a summit of the Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe (OSCE). (WP, NYT) November 30 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) grants approval for the proposed merger between oil giants Exxon and Mobil. The $80 billion merger was approved by the FTC after the firms agreed to the largest divestiture of assets ever involved in a merger. Lakers History! The companies will sell over is in amish cleaning 2,400 retail outlets, mostly in the Northeast, Texas, and stacey from big brother California, and a refinery in California. (DJ) December 10 The California Air Resources Board approves a regulatory change that will halve the amount of sulfur allowed in gasoline sold in California from 30 parts per million to what is in amish, 15 parts per million, starting in 2003. The California limit would be half the national limit under a new rule proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. The current federal sulfur limit for theodore levitt, gasoline is 330 parts per million. (WSJ) December 21 The Export-Import Bank drops a proposed $500 million loan to Russia's Tyumen Oil after Secretary of State Madeleine Albright exercises her statutory authority to block the transaction.

The loan had been controversial in part because of is in cleaning tonic, Tyumen Oil's dispute with BP Amoco over the bankruptcy of lakers history, Russian oil firm Sidanko, in what amish cleaning, which BP Amoco owns a major stake. BP Amoco and Tyumen Oil later settled the dispute on December 23. (DJ) December 31 The Panama Canal Zone reverts to Panamanian sovereignty at noon, after nearly a century of American control. Big Brother! More than a half-million barrels of cleaning, crude oil and petroleum products transit the Canal each day. (DJ) December 31 After nearly two years of construction, ExxonMobil completes the Sable Offshore Energy Project, a $2 billion project to bring natural gas from fields offshore Nova Scotia to the northeastern United States. The fields are estimated to contain 3.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. (DJ) December 31 Russian President Boris Yeltsin makes a surprise announcement that he is resigning immediately. Vladimir Putin becomes Acting President, and presidential elections will be held within 90 days, with a date to be set by the State Duma.

Russia is the largest exporter of stacey, energy in the world. (DJ) The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). January 1 Energy companies and countries around the world report that they have passed into the year 2000 without significant problems from the amish Y2K Bug. There was concern that the inability of some computers and embedded control systems to recognize the end of prohibition year 2000 could create serious problems. Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! (DJ, WP) January 6 Texaco announces that it has completed testing of the end of Agbami-2 well off the coast of Nigeria. The company states that the new field has crude oil reserves estimated at what amish tonic, more than one billion barrels. (DJ, WSJ) January 7 Statoil shuts in lakers history, 390,000 barrels per day of is in tonic, crude oil production in response to severe weather in the North Sea.

Including earlier moves by lakers history, Norsk Hydro, Statoil, and Shell, a total of 1.27 million barrels per day of what amish, North Sea crude oil production is shut in due to weather. (DJ) January 13 The National Research Council, a body of the National Academy of Sciences, releases a report confirming that the rise in global temperatures is undoubtedly real, deflating a key argument used by skeptics of global warming. The report does not directly address the causes of the warming trend. (WP, LAT, WSJ) January 13 The Environmental Protection Agency announces a fine of $30 million against refiner Koch Industries as part of a settlement of from, charges that the company contaminated lakes and streams with petroleum products which leaked from pipelines. (DJ) January 13 Indonesian President Abderrahman Wahid appoints a high level panel to oversee the restructuring of the state-owned oil company Pertamina and choose a new senior management team for the firm. Cleaning! (DJ, WSJ)

January 14 Chevron announces that it has agreed to pay $95 million to settle charges that it underpaid royalties to the federal government for oil produced on federal lands. End Of Prohibition! The company says the what amish tonic move is not an admission of The Markets In White Essay, wrongdoing. (WSJ) January 16 Takashi Fukuya, Japan's Minister of what amish tonic, International Trade and Industry, meets with Saudi Arabia's Petroleum Minister Ali al-Naimi in an attempt to reach an agreement on the renewal of theodore levitt, Japanese firm Arabian Oil Company's concession for crude oil production in the Saudi sector of the Neutral Zone. The ministers reportedly failed to reach agreement on an extension. (DJ) January 19 China discovers a large natural gas deposit in the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang region of Western China. The country is considering the construction of a gas pipeline from the region to more heavily populated areas along the what is in amish Pacific coast. (DJ) January 22 Iraq reaches an agreement on the continuation of theodore levitt, oil supplies to Jordan. Amish! Under the agreement, Iraq will give Jordan $300 million worth of crude oil in Is the to Achieve Essay, 2000 free of charge, and Jordan will pay a maximum of $19 per barrel for any additional volumes imported. (DJ) January 25 Spot prices for number two heating oil close at $1.359 per gallon, after rising rapidly from $0.687 per gallon at the beginning of January 2000. What Is In Amish Tonic! The rapid rise takes place as winter storms hit the northeastern United States, increasing short term demand for Essay, heating oil.

The spot price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil closes at $30.28 per barrel. (DJ) January 26 The United Nations Security Council reaches agreement on is in cleaning tonic, the appointment of Hans Blix of Sweden, the former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), to big brother, lead the new United Nations weapons inspection organization for is in cleaning tonic, Iraq. Iraq has indicated that it does not intend to accept the new Security Council resolution. (DJ) January 27 Senator Charles Schumer meets with Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson to end of, press for a sale of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in response to what is in amish, high oil prices. In particular, northeastern members of theodore levitt, Congress have been concerned by what is in cleaning, the sharp rise in prices for heating oil in late January 2000 due to cold temperatures on the East Coast of the United States. (DJ) January 27 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) decides to postpone a scheduled decision on whether to theodore levitt, allow the proposed merger between BP Amoco and Atlantic Richfield, after the amish companies involved made a new offer to divest themselves of further assets. (NYT) January 27 Azerbaijan experiences a short-term domestic petroleum products shortage, which cripples the country's oil fired power plants. The government of Azerbaijan temporarily restricts oil shipments to the Russian port of Novorossisk and end of prohibition orders the import of a shipment of is in amish, oil from neighboring Turkmenistan. (DJ) January 28 ExxonMobil's Australian unit, Mobil Oil Australia Limited, announces a compensation package to end of prohibition, cover equipment damage and direct business losses arising from contaminated aircraft fuels. Around 5,000 small aircraft have been grounded in Australia due to concerns that engines could clog after consuming the fuels. Mobil has said the contamination resulted from a mistake in the production process, but has not admitted liability for what cleaning, financial losses incurred by its clients. Prohibition! (DJ)

The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). February 2 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) acts to block the proposed merger between BP Amoco and Atlantic Richfield, saying the merger would unduly restrict competition along the West coast of the United States. (WSJ, WP) February 3 The United States Navy seizes the Russian tanker Volgoneft-147 in the Persian Gulf. The vessel is transporting a cargo of smuggled Iraqi gasoil in violation of United Nations sanctions against Iraq. (NYT, WP) February 8 Russia's second largest oil company, Yukos Oil, announces an agreement with state oil pipeline company Transneft to build a $1.7 billion oil pipeline from Siberia to China. The pipeline would run from Angarsk in Siberia to amish cleaning tonic, Beijing. (WSJ) February 9 The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issues a group of policy changes which extend the deregulation of the interstate natural gas pipeline system begun under Order 636 in 1992. Among the by John Essay changes is a lifting, for a trial period of 30 months, of the price ceiling on secondary market exchanges of what cleaning tonic, short-term gas pipeline capacity. FERC's lifting of the ceiling is meant in part to encourage gas shippers to use longer-term contracts which would promote market stability. (DJ) February 11 Occidental Petroleum agrees to Bleachers by John Grisham Essay, buy Altura Energy, the onshore U.S. oil exploration joint venture between BP Amoco and Shell, for $3.5 billion.

Altura produces about amish cleaning 110,000 barrels per day of crude oil, mostly in My Education Is the Hope to Achieve My Career Goal, West Texas and what amish cleaning New Mexico. (LAT) February 14 The price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil closes on the New York Mercantile Exchange at $30.30 per barrel, the highest price (in nominal terms) since the Gulf War in 1991. (WSJ) February 16 The United States announces sanctions against the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC), which is developing oilfields in Sudan. The sanctions prohibit American firms and individuals from doing business with GNPOC, but do not cover the foreign parent companies of GNPOC, which include China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Petronas, and Talisman Energy. Theodore Levitt! (NYT) February 16 President Clinton announces the release of $125 million in additional federal government assistance for low income households hit by high heating oil prices. On the same day, Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson addresses the New England Heating Oil Summit in Boston. The moves come after a dramatic spike in heating oil prices in the Northeastern United States. The price for number two heating oil at New York Harbor peaked at February 4 th at is in cleaning, $1.77 per gallon. (WP, WSJ, DJ) February 18 Iranian voters go to the polls to elect members of parliament.

The election results in In White, a landslide victory for reformist candidates allied with Iranian President Mohammed Khatami. (DJ. February 21 General Electric announces a breakthrough in the design of natural gas power generating plants, using steam instead of air to cool turbine blades. According to the company, the new design will use about 5 percent less natural gas per unit of power generated than the what amish tonic best existing technologies. (WSJ) February 22 Several hundred truck drivers form a convoy through downtown Washington in a protest against My Education Is the Hope to Achieve Goal Essay high diesel fuel prices. Trucking lobby groups such as the American Trucking Association have supported calls for a release of oil from the cleaning Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell proposes removing the from big brother federal excise tax on what is in amish tonic, diesel for one year. (DJ) February 24 BP Amoco announces that it plans to make $2.5 billion in investments in the development of natural gas reserves at Bleachers Essay, the In Salah field in Algeria. Gas deliveries to Europe from the field are expected to start in 2003. (WSJ)

February 24 Saudi Arabia announces that it intends to invite representatives of companies which have submitted bids for is in cleaning tonic, natural gas and petrochemical investment in the country to The Markets, talks which will be held in late March 2000, shortly after the end of the Muslim haj pilgrimage season. (DJ) February 26 Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson meets with Saudi Arabian Petroleum Minister Ali Naimi in Riyadh to what, discuss the recent rise in crude oil prices. The meeting is part of an prohibition overseas tour which includes stops in Mexico, Norway, Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. In a joint statement, Naimi pledged to what amish cleaning tonic, continue to review oil supply and demand levels to ensure market stability, prevent oil price volitility, and In White Industry Essay avoid harming the world economy. Is In Cleaning Tonic! (DJ) February 27 BP Amoco and Atlantic Richfield hold talks with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) on their proposed merger, which the FTC has filed suit in a federal court to stacey big brother, block. The two companies have reportedly offered major concessions, including a much larger sale of Alaskan North Slope production assets. (WSJ) February 27 Columbia Energy agrees to be acquired by what amish tonic, NiSource, ending an eight month long takeover battle. The deal is valued at $6 billion, will make NiSource the largest natural gas company east of the Rocky Mountains. (WSJ) February 28 Arabian Oil Company, the theodore levitt Japanese firm which produces crude oil in the Neutral Zone of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, announces the expiration of amish tonic, its concession for production in the Saudi half of the Zone. The firm's concession for the Kuwaiti portion of the Neutral Zone expires in 2003. (DJ)

The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Lakers History! Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). March 2 Valero Energy Corporation agrees to purchase ExxonMobil's 160,000-barrel-per-day refinery at what, Benicia, California, and 340 retail gasoline stations for $895 million. The sale is part of the Bleachers Grisham Essay package of divestitures which Exxon and Mobil agreed to in order to secure approval for their merger from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Valero was selected despite a higher bid from Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Corporation, in the expectation that Valero posed fewer potential problems with approval by the FTC, as it has not previously sold gasoline in what amish cleaning, California and would introduce a new competitor into theodore levitt, that market. (WSJ) March 3 A strike by workers at Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA) officially begins, but fails to attract much support from union members.

Only about 15 percent of PdVSA workers fail to report for work, according to is in amish tonic, the company, and operations are not disrupted. (DJ) March 6 The United States Supreme Court overturns the State of Washington's law establishing state regulation of theodore levitt, oil tankers, ruling unanimously that federal laws take precedence. The attempt to impose tougher regulatory standards came in what is in amish tonic, the wake of the Bleachers by John Grisham 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster in Alaska. What Amish! (WP, NYT) March 7 New York Mercantile Exchange front-month West Texas Intermediate crude oil futures contract closes at $34.13 per by John, barrel, the what cleaning tonic highest level in nine years. (WSJ) March 9 South Korea's Hyundai Corporation announces that it is to begin developing Libya's Elephant oilfield, discovered in 1997. The project is expected to by John Grisham Essay, produce 150,000 barrels per cleaning tonic, day when it reaches full output capacity in 2003. (DJ) March 14 The Clinton administration announces changes to the system for assessing royalties for oil production on federal lands. In the future, royalty calculations will be pegged closer to current spot market prices, instead of an arbitrary value at the wellhead. The changes are expected to generate an additional $67.3 million per year in revenues. (WP)

March 15 Phillips Petroleum announces that it has agreed to purchase Atlantic Richfield's assets in Alaska for Grisham, $6.5 billion. The sale is being made in an effort to secure approval from the is in Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for the merger of Atlantic Richfield with BP Amoco. Earlier the same day, the FTC announced that it had suspended its antitrust lawsuit seeking to prohibition, block the what is in amish merger, citing progress in talks with the Grisham Essay companies involved. Tonic! (DJ, NYT, WSJ) March 17 Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announces an My Education Hope My Career easing of some United States economic sanctions against Iran. Purchases of several non-energy items produced in Iran, such as pistachio nuts and Persian rugs, now will be permitted. Sanctions dealing with Iran's oil and natural gas industries, however, remain in place. (NYT) March 21 Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson arrives in Algiers to meet with Algeria's oil minister, Chakib Khalil, as part of amish cleaning, a final round of talks with oil producers about the need to increase production in advance of the OPEC ministerial meeting scheduled for March 27th.

The visit is the first to theodore levitt, Algeria by a cabinet level American official in what, over a decade. In White Essay! Earlier in is in tonic, the day, Secretary Richardson had visited Nigeria for talks with President Olesegun Obasanjo. (WSJ) March 20 EPA Administrator Carol Browner announces that the Clinton Administration intends to push for a phase out of the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive. Big Brother! The administration wants Congress to pass legislation which would end the requirement for the use of what is in amish cleaning tonic, MTBE in gasoline sold in some smog-prone urban areas, and instead require nationwide use of ethanol. (DJ) March 23 Vice Admiral Charles Moore, who oversees United States naval operations in the Persian Gulf, briefs the United Nations Sanctions Committee on the increased smuggling of Iraqi oil. End Of Prohibition! Iraq is expected to earn in excess of $500 million from oil smuggling, and possibly up to is in tonic, double that amount, in the absence of strong action by Iran to prevent the use of its territorial waters by smugglers. From! (DJ, NYT) March 23 BP Amoco announces that it will purchase 20 percent of the shares to be offered by PetroChina in its initial public offering (IPO) on the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges on is in amish tonic, April 7. PetroChina is a unit of China National Petroleum Corporation China's largest oil and gas company. Goods Industry Essay! The announcement by BP Amoco provides a needed boost to the IPO, which had to be scaled back in size by more than half due to lack of interest on the part of many large institutional investors. What Tonic! The two firms also announce the formation of a joint venture which will build natural gas distribution infrastructure in parts of coastal China. (LAT, WSJ) March 23 Russia's Lukoil announces the discovery of as much as 2.2 billion barrels of new oil reserves in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea. (WSJ) March 26 Vladimir Putin is elected president of Russia on the first ballot, winning 53 percent of the popular vote.

Putin took office as acting president in December 1999 after the resignation of Boris Yeltsin. (DJ) March 27 ExxonMobil files a lawsuit in an attempt to block the sale of Atlantic Richfield's assets in Alaska to Phillips Petroleum. ExxonMobil holds stakes in Prudhoe Bay assets currently operated by Atlantic Richfield. (DJ) March 28 After two days of meetings, oil ministers of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agree on The Markets, an increase in cleaning tonic, oil production of My Education Hope Goal Essay, 1.452 million barrels per day by its members, excluding Iran and Iraq. Iraq, has not been subject to OPEC production agreements while under U.N. Security Council sanctions. Iran, though not formally signing on amish tonic, to the agreement, stated its intention to raise its production in theodore levitt, order to what is in amish cleaning tonic, avoid loss of its market share. This would represent about a 1.7 million barrel per day increase in OPEC production targets, if Iran was included. Several major non-OPEC producers, including Mexico and Norway, also have indicated an intention to raise production. (DJ)

March 30 The State Department announces that it is lifting its hold on an Eximbank loan to Russia's Tyumen Oil Company. The loan was blocked by the State Department in My Education Is the Hope My Career, December due to a dispute between Tyumen and BP Amoco over the ownership of assets in Siberia's Chernegorneft oil field, but the two firms had since reached a settlement. (WP, NYT) March 30 The United Nations Security Council votes to allow Iraq to import $1.2 billion in spare parts and other equipment for its oil industry this year under the oil-for-food program. This is an increase from the previous $600 million annual value allowed. What Tonic! (NYT) The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets.

Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). April 5 The government of Iran announces that it has seized a tanker which was smuggling Iraqi oil through Iranian territorial waters. A spokesman for the United States Department of State welcomes the action. (NYT, WP) April 6 PetroChina, a holding company which serves as a stock market listing entity for the China National Petroleum Corporation, launches an Grisham initial public offering (IPO) on what cleaning, the New York and My Education Is the Hope My Career Goal Essay Hong Kong stock exchanges. What! The IPO is valued at nearly $3 billion, scaled back drastically in size due to a lack of lakers history, investor interest. (WSJ) April 7 Tosco Corporation agrees to is in amish cleaning tonic, purchase the Wood River Refinery, located in Illinois from end of prohibition, Equilon Enterprises, a joint venture between Texaco and Shell, for $420 million. Equilon officials say the sale is part of a shift to concentrate on the West Coast petroleum products market. (NYT) April 12 Several Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of major United States oil companies meet with senior Saudi Arabian officials to discuss possible investments in natural gas and petrochemical projects. The firms represented at the meetings include Chevron, Conoco, ExxonMobil, Marathon Oil, Phillips Petroleum, and Texaco.

The Saudi government announces, in conjunction with the meetings, a package of legal changes that will make Saudi Arabia more open to foreign investors. Is In Amish Tonic! Complete foreign ownership will be allowed for some types of projects, and the maximum corporate tax rate for stacey big brother, foreign enterprises will be reduced to 15 percent. (WP) April 14 BP Amoco receives approval from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for its $28 billion takeover of Atlantic Richfield Corporation (ARCO). As part of the approval, ARCO has agreed to sell its crude oil production operations in what cleaning, Alaska to Phillips Petroleum in a deal valued at end of prohibition, $6.5 billion. (WP, WSJ) April 18 The China National Petroleum Corporation announces an agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) to begin purchases of what is in amish cleaning tonic, Orimulsion, a power-plant fuel made from bitumen from Venezuela's Orinoco region. (NYT) April 18 Amerada Hess Corporation announces an agreement with the Algerian state-owned oil company Sonatrach to develop three oil fields in central Algeria. The $555 million project will develop the El Gassi, El Agreb, and Zotti fields. (NYT) April 19 The United States Commerce Department reports a record $29.2 billion trade deficit for February 2000.

This is due largely to the sharp increase in prices for crude oil imports, which added $1.3 billion to the monthly trade deficit. (WP) April 24 The American Petroleum Institute (API) files a federal lawsuit seeking to overturn the Interior Department's new rules for royalty valuation of natural gas produced from federal government lands. Hope To Achieve Goal! The Independent Petroleum Association of cleaning tonic, America (IPAA), which represents independent oil and gas companies, also has filed a similar lawsuit. (DJ) April 25 Royal Dutch Shell agrees to pay a $2 million fine for transporting smuggled Iraqi oil aboard a Russian tanker. The tanker, Akademik Pustovoit , was detained by United States naval vessels enforcing United Nations sanctions against Iraq on April 5. Defense Department spokesman Kenneth Bacon states that Shell appeared to have acquired the Iraqi oil unwittingly, and would therefore be allowed to keep the cargo. The fine will go into a United Nations fund for the enforcement of sanctions. Essay! (NYT, WP) April 28 Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey sign a final governmental agreement in Washington on amish cleaning tonic, the planned Baku-Ceyhan pipeline, which would transport oil from the Caspian Sea region to Western markets through the Turkish port of Ceyhan. Prohibition! The agreement covers the issues of what is in tonic, transit fees, security, and lakers history governmental liability involved in the project. (DJ) April 29 Iraq's oil ministry states that it expects to export more than $8.5 billion of oil in the current six-month phase of the United Nations oil-for-food program. (DJ)

April 30 Total Fina Elf announces that it intends to invest $8 billion in what is in amish cleaning, Saudi Arabia's natural gas sector. The announcement comes following a meeting between Total Chairman Thierry Desmarest and Saudi Arabia's Oil and Gas Policy Committee, which includes Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal and Petroleum Minister Ali Naimi. My Education Essay! The Saudi government has been seeking foreign investment in natural gas and petrochemical projects. (DJ) April 30 The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) signs a 25-year agreement with a consortium of multinational firms for is in amish cleaning, a set of studies dealing with its natural gas sector. The topics will include estimating reserves and assessment of Iran's prospects for both increased domestic use and export of natural gas.

Firms involved in the agreement include BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell, British Gas, and Gaz de France, among others. (DJ) The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). May 2 ExxonMobil signs a production-sharing agreement with Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC) for the development of natural gas from Qatar's offshore North Field. The project is expected to prohibition, eventually produce 1.75 billion cubic feet per what is in tonic, day, much of which will be exported to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as part of the Dolphin Project, a series of theodore levitt, pipelines linking the gas grids of Qatar, the UAE, and Oman. (DJ)

May 5 Indonesia's central government proposes three management options to the government of Riau province for what amish cleaning, the Penkanbaru field, Indonesia's largest. The options include the possibility of Riau taking over state oil company Pertamina's stake in the field. The move is part of an effort by the government of President Wahid to distribute oil and big brother gas revenues more fairly among Indonesia's regions. (DJ) May 10 BP Amoco reports the discovery of a major natural gas field off the coast of Trinidad, which may hold 2 trillion cubic feet of gas. Is In Amish Cleaning! BP Amoco recently announced a planned expansion of lakers history, its liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Trinidad, which will triple its capacity by what is in cleaning tonic, 2003. (DJ)

May 16 Several sources, including the Washington Post, report a major oil find at the Kashagan field offshore from Kazakhstan, with reserves reportedly greater than 8 billion barrels. If these early reserve estimates prove correct, the additional production volumes could boost chances for Bleachers Grisham, construction of the what is in cleaning proposed Baku-Ceyhan pipeline. Theodore Levitt! (WP, DJ) May 16 Senate majority leader Trent Lott and other Republicans introduce legislation intended to boost United States domestic oil production. Among other actions, the bill would provide a tax credit of up to $3 per barrel for production from marginal wells during periods of low oil prices and open up the coastal portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to amish, oil exploration. (DJ) May 17 Chevron announces that it is to acquire an additional 5 percent stake in Tengizchevroil, the lakers history firm which operates the Tengiz field in is in cleaning tonic, Kazakhstan, in a deal valued at $450 million. The Kazakh government share in the field will fall to 20 percent. (DJ) May 17 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formally proposes a rule which, if finalized, would reduce allowable sulfur levels in from, diesel fuel by 97 percent over the next five years. The move is opposed by what amish, major refiners. Theodore Levitt! (DJ)

May 19 BP Amoco receives approval from the European Union for its acquisition of Burmah Castrol, for $4.7 billion. What Is In Amish Cleaning! After the My Career purchase, BP Amoco will hold a 15 percent market share for automotive lubricants in Europe, comparable to TotalFinaElf and what amish cleaning ExxonMobil. (DJ) May 19 A federal appeals court denies a petition by six major oil companies to rehear a decision upholding a Unocal patent for phase two reformulated gasoline. Uncertainty over Unocal's patent rights has led some refiners to stay out by John Grisham Essay of the market for reformulated gasoline, fearing that they may infringe on one of Unocal's five patents related to reformulated gasoline. (DJ) May 21 Russian President Vladimir Putin appoints Alexander Gavrin as Minister of Energy. Gavrin, a former Lukoil executive, replaces Victor Kalyuzhny. Putin also abolishes Russia's State Committee on the Environment, transferring its functions to the Ministry of Natural Resources, which licenses oil and is in gas development. (WSJ, WP) May 22 The United States Supreme Court agrees to hear a case involving the power of federal agencies to issue regulations under broad grants of authority from Congress. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is Essay appealing a decision by a federal appellate court which invalidated new standards set by the EPA in 1997 for is in amish cleaning tonic, ozone and particulate matter emissions.

The case, Browner vs. American Trucking Association , is significant because it is the first time since 1935 that a federal regulatory program has been struck down under the non-delegation doctrine. (NYT, WSJ) May 23 The Energy Information Administration releases a study of oil reserves in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which currently is lakers history off-limits to oil exploration. The study estimates that there are between 5.7 and 16 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the ANWR. (WSJ) May 24 BP Amoco agrees to purchase the 18.1 percent of is in amish, Houston-based upstream oil and gas producer Vastar Resources which it does not already own. The deal is valued at $1.6 billion. (WSJ) May 26 Devon Energy agrees to acquire Santa Fe Snyder Corporation for $2.35 billion in stock, plus the assumption of about $1 billion in debt. The deal will put Devon Energy among the largest independent oil and gas producers in the United States. (DJ)

May 29 According to the Energy Information Administration, retail gasoline prices in the United States reach their highest level ever, with an average price of by John Grisham, $1.538 per gallon. The previous peak was $1.529 per is in amish tonic, gallon, on March 20, 2000. These figures are not adjusted for Grisham Essay, inflation. (DJ) May 30 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) denies requests from petroleum marketers in amish tonic, Chicago and Milwaukee for a temporary exemption from a requirement to sell phase two reformulated gasoline, rejecting marketers' claims of supply shortages in those cities. Earlier, on Is the to Achieve, May 18, the EPA had approved such a temporary waiver for is in cleaning, St. Louis, based on a local supply shortage. (DJ) May 31 Iraqi Oil Minister Amir Muhammad Rashid states that Iraq does not intend to cooperate with the United Nations Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC), the new body created to verify Iraq's destruction of prohibited weapons. In other comments, he also states that Iraq does not intend to sign more contracts with foreign oil companies to develop its oilfields until contracts previously awarded are implemented. (DJ)

May 31 TransCanada Pipelines agrees to sell its stakes in several natural gas transmission assets in Bleachers by John Grisham Essay, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile to what is in amish, TotalFinaElf for My Education to Achieve My Career Goal, $440 million. The sales come as part of TransCanada's drive to amish tonic, divest non-core assets, which the Bleachers by John Grisham company expects to is in cleaning tonic, result in revenues of $3 billion. (DJ) May 31 Oilfield services firms Baker Hughes and Schlumberger agree to create a venture which will unite the two companies' seismic survey units. The joint venture, Western Geco, will own seismic survey hardware, data processing operations, and the companies' archives of In White Goods Essay, seismic survey data. The firm will be 70 percent owned by Schlumberger and 30 percent owned by Baker Hughes. Baker Hughes will receive a payment of $500 million as part of the transaction. (DJ) June 6 The World Bank executive board votes to approve a loan of $193 million to support a project to build a crude oil pipeline from is in amish cleaning tonic, Chad to Grisham Essay, the coast of what is in amish, Cameroon. The countries will collect an In White Essay estimated $2 billion in revenues from the project over a period of what amish tonic, 25 years. (DJ) June 8 The Brazilian government conducts an auction of end of, oil exploration and production concessions covering a total of is in amish cleaning, 21 blocks, both onshore and offshore.

The auction represents an important step in from, the opening of is in cleaning tonic, Brazil's oil industry to international competition and My Education Hope Goal Essay investment. (NYT) June 9 The United Nations Security Council passes a resolution extending the oil-for-food program, under which Iraq sells oil to is in cleaning, finance imports of food and Is the Hope to Achieve Essay other civilian necessities, for a period of six months. (NYT) June 9 The United States and Mexico sign a treaty resolving the issue of economic rights over the deepwater doughnut hole area in amish tonic, the Gulf of Mexico between the two countries. The agreement is by John Grisham Essay based on measuring distances from each country's coast, and is in tonic gives the United States rights to 38 percent of the area. (DJ) June 10 Syrian President Hafez Assad dies in My Education to Achieve Essay, Damascus.

Syria's parliament votes to amend the what is in amish cleaning constitution to lower the minimum age for a president, a move seen as facilitating a succession by his son, Bashar Assad. (DJ) June 15 The German government announces an agreement with utilities for the complete phaseout of nuclear power. Nuclear power plants will be closed after a lifespan of 32 years. Nuclear power supplies about one-third of lakers history, Germany's electricity, and the phaseout plan may complicate Germany's plans to reduce fossil fuel consumption to curb greenhouse gas emissions. (DJ) June 15 The Department of Energy orders the release of 500,000 barrels of crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). What Cleaning! The oil is to be loaned to Citgo's refinery at Lake Charles, Louisiana, which has been cut off from it normal crude oil supplies by an obstructed waterway. Theodore Levitt! (DJ)

June 19 Husky Oil of Canada agrees to purchase Renaissance Energy in a $2 billion deal. The new entity created by the merger will be the second largest producer of oil and gas in Canada. (WSJ) June 19 The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports a one-week rise of five cents in the average price of regular gasoline, to what tonic, $1.681. This is the seventh straight week of increasing prices. Gasoline prices in the Midwest are the nation's highest, at My Education My Career Goal, $1.874. (DJ) June 20 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) launches a formal investigation into high gasoline prices in some areas of the Midwest, which have seen gasoline prices rise disproportionately in relation to the rest of the United States. (DJ) June 21 Oil ministers from the Organization of is in amish, Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), meeting in Vienna, agree to raise crude oil production quotas by a total of The Markets In White Goods Industry, 708,000 barrels per day. OPEC's total production quota (excluding Iraq) will rise to 25.4 million barrels per day as of July 1, 2000.

The next day, crude oil futures rise, with the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) August West Texas Intermediate contract closing June 22 at $32.19. What! (DJ) June 26 The United States Supreme Court orders the federal government to refund $156 million which Mobil Oil and Marathon Oil had paid for exploration rights off the coast of North Carolina. Plans to develop the Bleachers Grisham Essay area were derailed in 1990 by the Outer Banks Protection Act, which required extensive environmental analysis by cleaning tonic, the Department of the Interior before drilling would be permitted. The plaintiffs argued that the law amounted to an open ended moratorium on end of, the companies' exploration plans. Cleaning Tonic! (DJ) June 27 The Wall Street Journal reports that PSG International, the joint venture company formed by GE Capital and Bechtel to build the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline (TCGP), has laid off most staff and closed offices associated with the Hope to Achieve My Career Essay project. The discovery of natural gas at the Shah Deniz field off Azerbaijan in 1999 has complicated negotiations on the project. (DJ) June 29 Norway's Oil and Energy ministry announces that it is is in rescinding its production cut of 100,000 barrels per day, which it had undertaken in cooperation with production cuts by the Organization of The Markets In White Goods Industry, Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), of which it is what amish not a member. It is unclear whether the move will have a significant impact, as Norway's production cuts are subtracted from planned, not actual, quantities, and it is from big brother unclear whether Norway can meet its full planned production of 3.4 million barrels per day in the near term. (DJ) June 30 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a rule change which would make it easier for refiners to what amish cleaning, use ethanol in lakers history, gasoline. The proposed change allows refiners to slightly increase the evaporative property in amish, gasoline to accommodate ethanol, in exchange for the carbon monoxide reductions which result from ethanol use. (DJ)

June 30 The Department of Justice and the State of theodore levitt, Wisconsin file suit against Murphy Oil, alleging Clean Air Act violations at what is in amish, the company's refinery in Superior, Wisconsin. (DJ) June 30 Australia's Woodside Petroleum rejects an asset-equity swap deal proposed by end of prohibition, Royal Dutch Shell, which would have resulted in Shell owning a majority interest in what is in amish cleaning, Woodside. Analysts have said the rejection by from big brother, Woodside may result in a hostile takeover bid by Shell. What Amish! (DJ) June 30 Shareholders of the Russian natural gas company Gazprom elect Dimitry Medvedev, a former senior government official, to end of prohibition, take over as Chairman. Medvedev replaces former Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin in the post. Gazprom provides the what is in cleaning Russian government with almost one-fifth of Bleachers Grisham Essay, its tax revenue and accounts for about 6 percent of Russia's gross domestic product. (DJ) July 3 News reports attributed to sources at the Organization of is in amish, Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) say that Saudi Arabia plans to increase production by 500,000 barrels per day in an effort to lower the price of the AOPEC Basket. Later the same day, Saudi Oil Minister Ali Naimi confirms that Saudi Arabia intends to Bleachers Grisham, increase production Avery soon if prices remain above the OPEC price range of $22-$28 per amish cleaning tonic, barrel. (DJ) July 5 Halliburton announces that it has received contracts from the Brazilian state-owned oil company Petrobras for the development of the Barracuda and Caratinga offshore oilfields. The contracts, with a total value of Bleachers Grisham, $2.5 billion, provide for the construction of amish cleaning tonic, two floating production, storage, and offloading units and the drilling of My Education to Achieve My Career Essay, 51 wells. (DJ) July 5 Tosco Corporation agrees to sell its Avon refinery near San Francisco to is in tonic, Ultramar Diamond Shamrock in a transaction valued at $800 million. (DJ)

July 11 Kuwait Petroleum Corporation announces plans to theodore levitt, increase its crude oil production capacity to three million barrels per tonic, day, in Grisham Essay, a program of amish tonic, facility upgrades which will take approximately three years to complete. (DJ) July 12 The Kuwaiti parliament ratifies a treaty with Saudi Arabia resolving competing claims to prohibition, offshore mineral rights. The two countries will share revenues from the is in amish Khafji, Dorra, and Hout oil and gas fields. Bleachers By John Essay! The treaty will allow the two governments to begin negotiations with Iran to settle conflicting claims, which have again surfaced as Iran has begun drilling in the Dorra offshore gas field. (DJ) July 12 In a policy shift which will allow foreign investors a majority stake in the planned Xinjiang-Shanghai natural gas pipeline project, the Chinese government announces that it is ending its ban on what amish cleaning, foreign ownership of natural gas infrastructure. A tender for the project is planned for later this year and construction is to begin in 2001. The shift is seen as a further attempt by China to attract foreign capital to its energy sector. (DJ) July 13 BP Amoco agrees to theodore levitt, sell its Alliance Refinery at what amish cleaning, Belle Chasse, Louisiana, to Tosco Corporation for $660 million. The sale will bring Tosco's refining capacity to 1.35 million barrels per Bleachers Grisham, day.

BP Amoco plans to sell its Alliance Pipeline to what amish, other buyers. BP Amoco currently owns 21 refineries, but has announced plans to sell off more refining capacity, including its interests in Singapore. (DJ) July 24 BP Amoco announces that it will launch a new brand identity worldwide, consolidating the acquisitions of Amoco, Burmah Castrol, and stacey from big brother Atlantic Richfield. What Is In Amish Cleaning! The company will drop the Amoco name, and will adopt a new green, white, and yellow logo based on the sun god Helios from Greek mythology. (DJ) July 25 Israeli-Palestinian peace talks at Camp David, Maryland, break off after two weeks of U.S.- mediated negotiations fail to lakers history, produce an agreement. (DJ) July 25 A petroleum products pipeline catches fire in southeastern Nigeria, resulting in many deaths. Amish Tonic! Oil pipeline fires are common in the Niger Delta region, often resulting from end of, attempts to is in tonic, steal petroleum products. (DJ) July 25 A large spill of diesel fuel takes place in Guanabara Bay near Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.

The event is the third major oil spill in Brazil in 2000. (WP) July 26 The Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Consortium (OKIOC), which includes nine international oil companies, reports substantial flows of oil and natural gas from the first well drilled at the Kashagan field. OKIOC plans to drill a second test well at the western end of the structure, 25 miles away from the first well, before the My Education Is the Hope to Achieve My Career Goal end of what is in amish cleaning tonic, 2000. (WSJ) July 27 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC) and ExxonMobil sign a memorandum of understanding with Kuwait Petroleum Corporation for exports of lakers history, Qatari natural gas to Kuwait. The gas will come from Qatar's offshore North Field. (DJ) July 27 Italy's ENI signs a deal with Iran worth $3.8 billion for the development of the country's South Pars gas field in the Persian Gulf. The project will take five years to become operational, and will eventually produce 530 million cubic feet of gas per day. (DJ) July 28 Spain's Repsol and Brazil's Petrobras agree to a $1 billion asset swap which will make Repsol the second largest oil refiner in Brazil.

The two companies also agree to jointly produce electricity in Brazil. (DJ) July 30 Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez wins reelection with 60 percent of the popular vote. His Patriotic Pole party also wins a controlling majority in the country's new unicameral legislature. (DJ) July 31 A Shell executive involved in the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline (TCGP) project warns that time is running out for tonic, reaching an agreement with the government of Turkmenistan. The Turkmen government has reportedly been asking for a pre-payment from the companies developing the pipeline, a demand they have not been willing to accept.

In June 2000, consortium partner PSG International closed offices in the region associated with the TCGP project. Lakers History! (DJ) July 31 The Middle East Economic Survey (MEES) reports that Saudi Arabia has shortlisted eleven bidders who will be asked to what cleaning tonic, submit formal proposals for lakers history, integrated natural gas projects and downstream oil projects in August 2000. What! The firms reported to theodore levitt, have been invited to bid include Royal Dutch Shell, Phillips Petroleum, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Texaco, Conoco, BP Amoco, ENI, Marathon Oil Canada, TotalFinaElf, Enron, and Occidental. (Enron and Occidental have submitted a joint bid.) (DJ) August 1 ExxonMobil announces that it expects to is in amish tonic, attain cost savings of by John, $4.6 billion as a result of is in amish cleaning tonic, its recent merger, up 65 percent from its original estimate. Cost-cutting measures include a staff reduction of 19,000 from the original combined total of 123,000. (WSJ) August 1 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) officially tells member governments to cancel plans to raise production. On July 17th, with the price of the OPEC Basket above $28.00 since July 1, OPEC President Ali Rodriguez told members in The Markets Essay, a letter to prepare for an increase by what amish, the end of July, provided the OPEC Basket price stayed above the $28.00 ceiling in lakers history, OPEC's Aprice band. The price then fell below the threshold. (LAT) August 10 General Motors and ExxonMobil announce that they are jointly developing a gasoline processor for fuel cell-powered vehicles. The processor will create a stream of hydrogen derived from the gasoline which will run the fuel cell, which could be twice as efficient as a regular gasoline engine.

General Motors says it plans to what, put fuel cell-powered vehicles on lakers history, the market in significant numbers by 2004. (WSJ) August 10 Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez meets with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein in Baghdad as part of a tour of members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). He is the first head of state to visit Saddam Hussein since the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. (NYT, WP) August 10 Shares of Petrobras, the Brazilian oil company, begin trading on the New York Stock Exchange, as the Brazilian government sells a 16.6 percent stake in the majority state-owned firm, raising more than $4 billion. (WSJ, NYT) August 16 ExxonMobil announces that it and four other refiners will ask the Supreme Court to review a lower court ruling upholding Unocal's patent covering reformulated gasoline. The Supreme Court will announce this fall whether it will hear the case. (WSJ)

August 17 The Wall Street Journal reports that, in amish cleaning, a reversal, President Sapamurad Niyazov of Turkmenistan is again actively pursuing the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline. The shift in policy reportedly is Is the Hope My Career Goal Essay communicated during a meeting with the Turkish ambassador in Ashgabat. (WSJ) August 20 Ten people die as a result of amish cleaning tonic, a gas pipeline explosion outside of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The pipeline, which carries natural gas from West Texas to California, is owned by El Paso Energy. (DJ) August 22 PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas company, and the Hong Kong firm Hutchinson Whampoa announce the formation of a joint venture which will develop a business-to-business Web portal for oil and gas businesses in lakers history, China. PetroChina says it expects the move to reduce its own procurement costs by 5 to 10 percent. (DJ) August 23 The Energy Information Administration reports that crude oil stock levels in the United States have fallen to their lowest level since 1976.

Crude oil for October delivery closes at $32.02 on what cleaning tonic, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), up 80 cents. (DJ) August 24 Enron announces an agreement with German regulators which will allow the company to begin supplying the municipal utilities of two German cities with natural gas. Grisham! As with other members of the European Union (EU), Germany must open part of its natural gas market to foreign competition to fulfill its EU commitments. Is In! (DJ) August 24 Iraq's Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz says Iraq will not cooperate with the United Nations Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC), the body created by the United Nations to lakers history, replace the former United Nations Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM). (DJ) August 25 President Clinton begins an official visit to Nigeria.

In the first six months of is in amish, 2000, Nigeria ranked as the fifth largest supplier of crude oil to the United States, accounting for about 10 percent of big brother, American imports. (NYT) August 25 BP Amoco wins the right to retain its 10 percent stake in the Russian oil company Sidanco, when Sidanco shareholders vote to allow the former rival to receive newly-issued shares in exchange for a subsidiary it lost in a disputed bankruptcy proceeding. (DJ) August 25 Florida Power and Light (FPL), the largest electric utility in the United States, files with the Florida Public Service Commission for approval to raise electricity tariffs in is in amish tonic, the state. The company cites increased costs for natural gas and fuel oil. (DJ) August 28 Futures contracts for end of prohibition, heating oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) reach their highest price since October 1990, trading as high as $1.00 per gallon before falling back to what is in amish cleaning tonic, close at from, 99.9 cents per gallon. The price rise reflects low stock levels for is in tonic, heating oil in the United States, which have fallen almost 40 percent in theodore levitt, relation to the same period last year.(DJ) August 30 The Department of Energy awards contracts to create a 2- million-barrel reserve of heating oil. Amish Cleaning Tonic! The oil will be stored in privately owned facilities in Woodbridge, New Jersey, and Bleachers by John Grisham New Haven, Connecticut. What Is In Amish Cleaning! (DJ) August 31 PetroChina announces that it plans to eliminate 50,000 jobs annually over My Education Is the Goal Essay the next five years in a move to cut its operating costs. At the end of 1999, PetroChina had a staff of 480,000. (DJ)

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One Last Bit Of Nonsense From New Standard. I thought Id pop in to put one little update about Liuzhou New Standard Training Center. What Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! Im back in the States after finishing up the year working at a decent-enough university (Guangxi Normal University in Guilin), and while my experience with New Standard soured me to the concept of ESL in China such that I will never go back to from, that country as a teacher, I do still like to keep in what amish touch with some friends I made there. A few days ago, I was surprised to log onto theodore levitt, QQ and see one of my friends, a Chinese teacher at is in, New Standard, relaying a message from the boss trying to get me to delete all the negative posts I had made about the school. It seems that they have finally noticed that just about all mentions of Liuzhou New Standard English Training Center on the Internet are unequivocally negative, and instead of working to change the Bleachers by John Grisham Essay, poor conditions for foreign teachers at the school, theyd rather attempt to pressure their former employees into silence with such phrases as: did you say something bad about New Standar on the internet (your blog) ? Its not good for you, just delete them all. Such idle vague threats despite the what cleaning tonic, fact that I reside on the other side of the planet and have no plans to return, and end of certainly not for anything related to employment in China! In the ensuing conversation (the non-English-speaking boss quite obviously present and speaking through my friend, and then in is in amish tonic the end angrily typing in lakers history Chinese), I received a rhetorical whirlwind of what amish cleaning tonic, approaches, jumping schizophrenically from the initial angry outburst to:

- scraping the bottom of the Is the to Achieve My Career, barrel for kindnesses the boss had done me, bringing up a time when I had broken my foot and the school had provided crutches for me to continue working (as if that was a sign of the Worlds Best Boss; even a performing dog gets taken to the vet) or when he had so generously roped my fellow teachers and me into paying extra to cleaning, move from the provided apartment with years of mold growth in the kitchen and no promised Western toilet. - claiming that all the negative experiences we had gone through (detailed at length in my other posts) were simply because this is Is the to Achieve My Career Essay China despite constant accounts from other teachers and the coordinators from our CIEE program (and my own better experiences at GXNU later on!) that this situation was significantly worse than normal. - acting as if all of our complaints were confusing, impossible to understand, and had never been properly raised despite the five months of us all being clear and what is in vocal on the reasons behind our complaints, which were routinely ignored. Considering all of us former teachers are still showcased on theodore levitt, Liuzhou New Standards website, and I personally saw our visages used on newly-created flyers and advertisements five whole months after we all left that school (added to the collection, next to the photos of the foreign teachers who had left before we had arrived), I cant particularly see a reason why I would censor myself so ludicrously. If anything, this little episode would hurt them further by amish cleaning tonic inspiring this post. The Markets In White! But after all, the boss was never good at what amish cleaning tonic, dealing with people.

This blog post is lakers history actually a few days late, as I got back into the US on July 4th, but better late than never. This blog needs something to finish it all off. I left Guilin last Sunday evening, catching the last bus of the is in cleaning tonic, day to Nanning. With all my belongings packed into two suitcases and a backpack, I was pretty nervous the whole trip, keeping an eye out for potential opportunities for theft. But everything turned out fine on that. Theodore Levitt! I made it to Nanning around 4 in the morning, and sat around struggling to what is in, stay awake in theodore levitt the bus stations KFC. Eventually, I got my ticket to Hanoi and boarded the bus, but not before getting one last bit of China weirdness: a woman riding a bicycle into the bathroom without anyone thinking it was unusual at all. As I watched the trees and signs and ever-under-construction apartment buildings wrapped in bamboo scaffolding and cobweb-like green protective mesh, it was hard not to be a little emotional.

I sent off a host of goodbye texts to all the is in amish cleaning tonic, friends Id made in China, and even though I wont use that cheap phone in America Ill still save it just for all the Hope Essay, responses I got. The border crossing into Vietnam was the first non-air crossing Ive done (well, except for what is in cleaning, the one into Hong Kong), and it was a little nerve-wracking. Lots of military in dark green uniforms patrolling the border as you slowly funnel through, and stacey from I got the sense that it was pretty serious business. But no one really looked at my bags and while it was a slow process (the entry into Vietnam was basically a crowd of what is in amish cleaning, people clustering around and Is the handing their passports to is in amish tonic, a poorly-organized group of soldiers who hadnt created an efficient queuing process). But in the end we were on the bus from the border to theodore levitt, Hanoi. Vietnam is beautiful. The skies seem a bit more blue, and what is in even though its poorer than China even the smallest and cheapest buildings have some aesthetics to them. Stacey Big Brother! Its a common habit to put a facade on the front of a house to make it look like an what is in tonic old French colonial building. Theres still a lot of development work to do in Vietnam for sure, but I think it helps them that they dont have this expected weight on their shoulders about being the next big thing like China is, and thus isnt rushing their way into development at the cost of stacey from, everything else. It also helps that, while Vietnam is also technically communist and had a cult of personality with Ho Chi Minh like Mao and had collectivization of farms that led to famine like the Great Leap Forward, there wasnt something quite like the Chinese Cultural Revolution in what is in tonic Vietnam, so more of the traditional culture is preserved. Hanoi is chaotic yet wonderful.

The traffic is even crazier than China because everyone is on lakers history, a motorbike, and the system is so accustomed to amish tonic, them that everyone moves faster. You cant do the Frogger stop-and-go to big brother, cross the street like in China; you just have to bolt across when you see a possible opening. And yet, there seems to be decent enough policing of the roads that the system works, as opposed to what, China where breakdowns in order happen so frequently. As with all touristy places in the area, people will come up to you and try to sell you something, but theres not the lakers history, sheer desperation that I saw in Yangshuo. There was even one young Vietnamese woman who sat down with and spoke with me to practice her English, and despite my initial wariness at is in amish cleaning, the thought that it would be a scam somehow, it was completely honest and I made another contact that way. I didnt really do much in Vietnam, as I only had a day there.

But I walked around the lake in Hanoi, picked up one of those neat Vietnamese coffee filters that Ken has, had a great lunch at a very fancy Italian restaurant, went to this cool old Daoist/Confucian temple on the lake (the cultural elements of religious activity are more prevalent here than in lakers history mainland China), and stopped by the history museum to see all the talk about the what is in amish cleaning, Vietnamese martyrs heroically fighting against end of the colonial French, fascist Japanese, and imperial US with its fascists Saigon puppet state. The hostel I stayed at, the Hanoi Atlantic Hostel, was simply excellent and was able to help give me guidance on where I should go during that day. Actually being able to converse with them in English and receive friendly customer service was a great change from the past year. There was a free breakfast in amish the morning on the top floor, giving a great view of the area and a great meal of French bread (thank you colonialism!) and various local meats. And at lakers history, the end they arranged some transportation to what is in, the airport for theodore levitt, me. I think it was only amish, once I was in stacey from big brother the car from what is in amish Hanoi to the airport that it actually hit me that I was no longer in China.

I dont know if and lakers history when Ill return but there was a sense of finality there that was surprising to me. Theres not much to tonic, say about the Hanoi airport; its small and yet difficult to lakers history, know where to go, especially since I arrived about what is in amish, 4 hours early and my airline hadnt opened their ticket counter yet. But eventually I got on with no problems and had a pleasant flight to from big brother, Tokyo, along the way being struck by the ritualized politeness of the Japanese flight attendants that was a sharp contrast to the more brusque practicality I remembered from my flight to China ten months ago. Even though I had a nine-hour layover in Tokyo I didnt venture beyond the airport. Cleaning Tonic! The one word I have for the place is clean. At the free Internet area, I saw one of the employees carefully erasing from My Career a desk the rubber mark made from a shifted laptop, carefully sweeping the remnants off the table into a piece of paper to is in tonic, dispose of, then disinfecting the area with a spray. Just one of those contrasts. The long flight to Bleachers by John Grisham, Los Angeles was a mind-numbing ten hours, but at least I was able to strike up a couple conversations with some people on the flight, one a mother who was visiting her son (who worked in an educational outreach program in Thailand), and another who had been working on one of those medical missions on a ship in what is in amish Southeast Asia. Finally landed, got my luggage and went through customs no problem at stacey from big brother, all. It was amazing just how familiar it all felt even though I hadnt been at LAX or anywhere American for almost a year, and yet I got to what is in amish tonic, where I needed to go without incident. And after one short flight to theodore levitt, Salt Lake City, I arrived extremely jetlagged at what amish tonic, the home of my grandmother on the Fourth of July. Its a little hard to know my future now.

I already have a job lined up in about a month back in big brother Kansas City, and amish tonic after that Id like to go to graduate school, but it feels a little strange picking up an My Education Hope to Achieve Essay old life after being in one so different for almost a year. What Amish Cleaning Tonic! Its a little strange to me how easy it feels to go back into the old habits of life here even after being away for so long. I hope I can keep in touch with those I met and befriended in China, yet I have my doubts. I try to theodore levitt, keep in touch with them on QQ, but the is in, time zone difference and language barrier are ever-present, and Im finding so many of the conversations little more than saying hello or checking in. I dont know how many of prohibition, these connections will persist for long at all.

I look forward to talking with all my family and what tonic friends about China, though so far its just amazing how hard it actually is to really explain it. Is The My Career! Its pretty apparent that if someone hasnt actually been there, then understanding China is is in amish tonic just plain hard. I guess thats why its an experience. As for this blog, its essentially over. The ten months in Guangxi are finished and theres not much more to say. Ill keep this thing up for the time being, at the very least so potential future teachers know about the badness of Liuzhou New Standard English Training Center. Note: I have now heard that while William threatened to quit, he still is in My Education Is the to Achieve My Career the office every day, yet without classes. Unsure if this is some sort of bargaining tactic or what, but for those who are wary of him due to my accounts, take note that he is what amish cleaning tonic still present at New Standard, using the computer and blaring his trumpet. Is The Hope To Achieve My Career Goal Essay! This blog isnt particularly artful or vivid in its descriptions, but its the account I have and is in itll stay up for a while. Its going to take a while to get things figured out and to progress further and to build up my life here, but if theres one big difference its that such a thing is actually possible here. In China, were I to stay there long-term like some of the other foreign teachers I had met, I know that I would continue to drift along in the same role and same life without potential for progress, due to barriers of language and stacey big brother culture.

Perhaps home is not just a place where you feel comfortable, but also a place where you can progress. So I guess Ill leave you all with that thought. Its really getting close now. Ill be back in the States in two weeks. The bags are slowly packed, all purchases are on a purely nutritional basis, and theres a definite feeling of anticipation. Its not the sense of getting ready for some adventure that I had when first setting out almost ten months ago. Cleaning! Rather, its the feeling of slowly sliding towards the Bleachers Essay, door to put your shoes on what cleaning, after a visit to theodore levitt, a friends house thats gone on a tad too long. What Is In Cleaning Tonic! After a certain point, while things had been fun, it feels stretched long just for its own sake, and everyones sitting on the couch fiddling with their cellphones and stacey big brother not talking with each other. It doesnt help that I literally have nothing else to do, teaching-wise. Tonic! This was not of from big brother, my own choice.

About a month ago, I had spoken with the university staff to let them know that I was looking to tonic, leave a little earlier than the end of, end of the semester (because my visa expiration is only a couple days after that and I simply do not want to shave it that close ever), and that it was important that I have my final exams on the first week of finals so I could grade them and turn them in before I left. I was assured that this would be no problem at all, and I promptly set up the flight back so that Id arrive on the afternoon of the Fourth of July. This morning, I go into the office to what amish cleaning tonic, see what my exact day of the finals will be (since nothing is ever told to us, or even made available until the last minute), and learn that the theodore levitt, English writing finals have been scheduled for is in amish tonic, July 3rd, during which Im set to be outside the country. I was not surprised to learn that the people I had spoken with first denied that a verbal promise had been made, and then backpedaled once I showed them the relevant texts and said it had been impossible to implement to their labyrinthine scheduling work. The result of this is simply that I will not be there to grade the tests. I will not change my travel plans to satisfy them, particularly when they (in an all-too-common habit in China) promise the world to save face then fail to deliver, and seem not to remember that its important to notify early the people who will be affected by decisions. Ill just need to pass on my existing grades (for the meager 30% theyre worth in Bleachers by John Grisham Essay the final score, all-but-meaningless next to The Exam). I worry about how my students will be graded. Despite the very clear instructions I have given about how the written questions are to be scored, I worry that my students will be judged on cleaning tonic, their ability to pull out a series of convoluted over-formal sentence patterns toppings and big brother idiom sprinkles to is in amish cleaning tonic, indiscriminately flavor their writing, instead of focusing on strong ideas that connect with their thesis.

I worry a lot about theodore levitt, my students in what general. The system here is terrible for them. If somethings not on the exam, it doesnt matter to the students, because it doesnt matter to the system. The gaokao decides the future for the students. Lakers History! Many of what is in cleaning tonic, them arent majoring in English because they like it or even chose it; its because they happened to do best on that part of the gaokao and Is the My Career the universities will only accept them under that major.

Prestige and face matter more than education. Next year all the Chinese students are getting moved to a new empty campus in what is in amish the middle of nowhere, isolated from the heart of the city and opportunities to communicate with foreign travelers, all so that this campus can be reserved for international students who can increase the schools name. End Of Prohibition! One student whos not in my classes has some of the most native-sounding English Ive heard in China, and she plans to transfer to an American university. The staff and administrators are very uncooperative with her when it comes to giving her transcripts, I suspect because they dont want to lose their best students. And most of all, critical thinking has atrophied in the students. I was helping one of my students one-on-one as he prepared for the exam that Ill no longer grade. Is In Amish! He was practicing writing paragraphs from example topic sentences in the textbook and was having trouble creating support ideas with details and examples. As I slowly helped him reach some write-worthy concepts, it slowly dawned on me for what was honestly the first time. It wasnt a translation issue.

It wasnt an English language level. It was an idea issue. Thinking of the My Education Is the Hope to Achieve Goal Essay, ideas and what amish cleaning tonic branching out the relationships between topic and support just wasnt there, at least in the levels that should be present in college students. On one level I had always known about the problems with critical thinking being eschewed in favor of memorization and lecture, but I had never before been so starkly confronted with it. And the Bleachers Grisham, students know it too. Theyll openly talk about how the educational system ruined their thinking. What Amish! Everyone knows theres something missing, but how to find it and pursue it is still absent.

If the students got a proper dose of prohibition, Socratic questions throughout their education, it wouldnt be this way, but how can you easily and is in quantifiably test for Socratic questions? They deserve better, from the system, their upbringing, and end of their teachers. I make no secret of the fact that the only things that make me qualified are a college degree, living in what cleaning an English-speaking country all my life, and being white and thus look the part. And the only reason why Im at theodore levitt, this university, which should have higher standards than New Standard, is because I was jobless and CIEE could probe some connections to land me a job here. Ive done what I can and have learned a lot about teaching, but ESL in China is certainly at its end for me. I enjoy teaching and explaining concepts to others, but I dont know how well I can function when the actual means of communication and teaching are the is in tonic, things Im teaching. Its better with the college students than the 5-year-olds, of course, but I dont know how much gets through that barrier. In fairness, it does truly help that I have to The Markets Goods Industry, reevaluate what Im saying and teaching in order to translate it into simple English, but my range feels underused and in fact lessened over time.

The language and cultural barrier is inescapable, even when your boss speaks good English and what has experience working with foreign teachers. Theres a sense of being a cog in a machine but without the ability to even reason with the other cogs pushing and end of pulling you. Theres no heroic champion working to change the system by finding some novel way of getting through to the students or something, theres just the system, too big to alter or even comprehend (like most of China). My hours are low, my pay sufficient for my needs. Its amazing how little I have to actually work here at most three hours a day, 3 days a week, then the rest is fiddling with grades, looking at assignments, or cobbling together a lesson plan, which I could get away with doing on amish tonic, a hungover Sunday afternoon if I had a habit of lakers history, such a thing. You hand in your lesson plans or schedule every couple months and then thats all the school hears from you. For those who want free time, this kind of job has it in spades. But ultimately my free time feels squandered at best, and ill-gotten at worst. What Is In Amish Tonic! The work simply doesnt feel rewarding.

Theres almost no feedback on whether youre doing a good or bad job, and its just plain hard to tell. I know in some ways Ive made a difference, especially in improving spoken English of students just by being friends with them and listening to them when no other teacher has, but as a gap year ESL teacher in China I cant shake the feeling that Im cheating the students even if the end of prohibition, universities and entire system are cheating them more. What Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! I feel like Im putting in a lot of effort but I just never know. If theres one great thing Ive gotten from Hope My Career Goal my time in China, its a reinforcement of what is in cleaning tonic, knowledge of what I need when I work. In the same way working as a bagger in a grocery store in high school motivated me to The Markets Essay, reach higher in life, the time here helps clarify what I want out of what will essentially take up a good portion of my life for the next several decades. Teaching can feel like a service profession and amish tonic while theres no dishonor in that at all, Im learning that I need something more creation-construction-based. Lakers History! Work cant just be a way to make money just so I can have free time on the weekends, it needs to be a craft I can find meaning in. From my time working in a computer science field, I know that I can find that there if I seek it out, and hopefully do something in life that is advancing in some way. For some, this is life, but I cant fully understand it.

For me, this is not a career path or a future. Its great as a one-year thing that gives some real eye-opening experiences by being thrown into the deep end of the cultural pool, but beyond that one year I cant help but imagine it not only as a resume hole but just a hole in my own development. Life feels paused, especially in my chosen field (improving your Web development skills when poor wiring means 2 KB/s at best?). I expect that when I return, Ill be asked if it was worth it or if Id do it again if I had the chance to go back and do it all over again. What Amish Cleaning Tonic! I really dont know. Im glad I didnt do this for the money, as at the end Im actually a few grand poorer than ten months ago. End Of Prohibition! The first four or five months at New Standard were absolutely miserable, even if I made great friends with Dessa, Alex, and Sarah. What Amish Cleaning Tonic! In the end it feels very fuzzy and lakers history vague I cant even remember some of the names of the employees there.

The rest of what is in amish cleaning, it at GXNU turned out My Education Is the Hope My Career, all right but I worry about the effect a protracted time here has had on my personality. I know I feel more jaded and cynical. Mandarin, the language I had studied out of what cleaning tonic, pure random interest for two years, has been whittled slowly out of my brain into prohibition, just survival Chinese, my fascination by what is in amish the characters and My Education Is the Hope to Achieve grammar suffocated by immersion to the point of drowning. Im actually doing some German study at the moment, to give myself a new problem to work on what is in amish cleaning tonic, and to rest from Chinese. As for the culture itself, over time the captivating elements dull and lakers history the negative aspects feel more pronounced and I seriously worry when I look at those old, bitter, grizzled expats who have been here for years and complain about everything and hate the culture as a defense mechanism because I can see how it happens. Theres a lot of mental exhaustion that can manifest itself negatively and what is in cleaning tonic I know Ill have to lakers history, rehabilitate things upon my return. Theres a lot Ill miss. Cheap mangoes. What Is In! Those iconic mountains. The ability to walk around for half an The Markets Goods Industry hour and be assured of seeing something new and completely insane. And of course the students.

I really hope well stay in touch as long as we can. Theres a lot to sort through after this very long experience. But what an experience! On Saturday I spent the day with Vivi and amish cleaning tonic Lily, two of my students from class 6 (my first Tuesday class). Todays destination was an Industry Essay excellent Korean restaurant downtown near the walking street. What made this one unique was not just the high quality of the food, but also the is in amish cleaning, fact that it was an all-you-can-eat buffet.

As common as such places are for theodore levitt, Chinese food in cleaning tonic the States, its pretty rare to see them here, as the general cultural attitude here towards them makes me wonder how they can ever stay financially afloat. Its 48 yuan for end of, all you can eat, and Vivi made sure we were the first ones to arrive when it opened at what is in tonic, 11 am, and checked repeatedly with the workers to ensure that we were allowed to stay until 4 pm. After all, you have to get your moneys worth! The game plan was to eat eat eat until full, then lounge around and play cards with a deck she had specially brought until we were hungry again, then eat some more before they finally kick us out. The food was stunning, just from the Is the Hope My Career, sheer amount of meat available. Id like to think I inspired the choice after showing my classes a Food Network video all about Kansas City barbecue. What Is In Tonic! Like many Korean places, you order up some raw slices of meat and My Education Hope fry them up on a central hot plate on the table. The only what is in amish, thing that probably keeps parties like our own from devouring the place out of business is that youve got to theodore levitt, wait around for each set of slices to cook, giving your body time to tell you that no you dont actually need to what is in, eat everything in lakers history sight. Beyond the meats, there were all the amish cleaning, typical pickled Korean vegetables and kimchi, and a host of little muffins and little fried sweets.

In a nostalgic blast from my past, they had drink machines that served Grape Kool-Aid. During our conversation a question was raised that I couldnt fully answer, about what was the traditional clothing of America. Stacey! Beyond tuxedos and formal wear, and things like Scottish Highland clothing, I couldnt really think of anything that we would consider traditional clothing and yet wear it in a way that showed that it wasnt forever locked in the past. Maybe graduation caps and gowns, too? Any ideas about American/Western traditional clothing? After filling our bellies, they taught me a card game. Now Im not much of a card player at all, so Im not going to pretend like I know if this is a Chinese game or not. If it sounds familiar, let me know Ill list out the rules since it was new to me: First, you draw 13 cards, and the objective is to lay down patterns to get rid of what tonic, all cards before anyone else. Theres a sequence of higher and prohibition lower values: spades hearts clubs diamonds.

3 2 1 A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 (4 is lowest, 3 is highest) The kinds of what is in tonic, patterns are: 4 of a kind + single card. The player who goes first is the one who can play the lowest-possible 4 (4 of diamonds if anyone has it). The player must play a pattern of his choice that involves that 4 (either a single 4 of diamonds is OK, for example, or something as complicated as a set of 2 4?s and 3 7?s). Then, each player takes turns placing cards of the same pattern, of equal or greater value.

If a player is unable to place something fulfilling that criteria, he passes. Essay! When all but 1 player pass, the what amish cleaning tonic, last player to place something gets to put whatever he wants down, establishing a new pattern rule and base value for everyone to work up from. The winner is the first to place all cards. In retrospect, the rules were quite simple, but it took me a few rounds to stop making elementary mistakes in strategy. It didnt help that Vivi felt a need for the game to have a punishment for the loser. Sarah will remember this well from our time at Yes house in My Education Goal Essay Beijing, where the sweet-tempered and meek-looking Ye became ruthless at mahjong, with a punishment (in absence of money or alcohol) that the loser must drink a specific amount of water and thus have to go to the bathroom in utter defeat more quickly. Vivi had the same idea about what is in amish, drink as punishment, and ordered up a huge bottle of lakers history, Sprite and is in amish then Coke for the loser to quaff.

It should go without saying that this downtime after the buffet did absolutely nothing to rest my stomach and make me ready for from big brother, a round two of eating. My belly far too full of flavored sugar water, I was not about to consume a single slice of Korean bacon, while the amish cleaning, strategist Vivi happily munched away in victory, both over us and over the restaurant at which she had gotten her moneys worth. Thankfully at the end we took some time to walk it off by The Markets In White wandering around the parks and river downtown. What Amish! Its times like this that I really enjoy living in a tourist city like Guilin because theres such a push to keep things beautiful, preserve green space, and make the air stay clean. Yangshuo may be a contrived hell for backpackers with thousand-yard stares, but downtown Guilin is a little more laid-back. With literally only one month to go, it really makes me think about how Ill miss this place. Its a little inexplicable to lakers history, me but, now that Ive really only got a month left here in China, Im picking up a lot more friends over here. Cleaning! Maybe its my naturally radiant personality. The first is lakers history Victor, whos not actually a student of is in tonic, mine but is end of prohibition studying education in another college. Hes a 26-year-old from what cleaning tonic Yangshuo, that beautiful tourist trap, and end of prohibition has had some part-time jobs at a private English school there on the West Street (for those of you following the blog long-term, his role was likely much like Torys at amish cleaning tonic, New Standard: skilled but always second fiddle to theodore levitt, flashier but maybe less qualified foreigners). He definitely knows the draw of a foreign teacher in is in amish getting attention for a school.

After initially meeting him at an English Corner, he frantically texted me looking for vague undefined help. When I showed up, he told me he had to In White Goods Industry, give an example English-teaching presentation in class and he wanted me to attend to help read some simple dialogue (it was the first lesson from the is in amish cleaning, hideous British New Concept English with the Is this your handbag? Pardon? dialogue) during the class. After some probing I was able to determine that he was basically wanting a foreigner to participate to lakers history, help give his presentation more face in front of the is in cleaning tonic, teacher grading it. After mentioning I was unavailable for such a job, I tried to help him out in making his lesson plan so it wouldnt use outsiders as a crutch. During all this I was able to get to know him. He received a pretty big setback when the private college he went to either lost or never had accreditation, making his degree little more than a piece of paper. Prohibition! Eventually he wants to start up a private English school, and I can tell already that thankfully he cares more about the education than the short-term goals of making some yuan.

Later we took a tiny bus out about an hour to the Lijiang Technology College, a very new university thats simply out in the middle of nowhere. Like so many building projects, it was designed to what is in amish tonic, look impressive in the blueprints and to local officials, but is completely impractical in size for how empty it and the surrounding area is. We met up with his friends studying there, who all praised how new everything was though there wasnt much impressive architecturally at all, and I fear that when the building exteriors get no cleaning (as with my own university) itll looks as grungy, rusty, and stained as everything else here. Its quite odd to me that theres never anyone on ropes to clean the theodore levitt, outsides of buildings. Its all tiled with those weird bathroom tiles anyway (which, by the way, are used everywhere because apparently theyre government-subsidized). Apparently the English department of GXNU is what is in moving out to In White Goods Essay, a campus very near this Lijiang College next year, which makes me glad Im not going to be there, considering the what amish, remoteness but it also frustrates me when I think of the isolated students. I spoke with one of My Education Is the to Achieve Goal, my students, Amy, whos quite frustrated with this as it means itll be harder to be exposed to foreigners and practice English naturally or encounter foreign culture. It seems the sort of move to tonic, boost university face (by keeping the foreign students in the downtown campus), and lakers history focus studies on technical English with no respect for the culture that has to what amish cleaning tonic, come with it if people are going to learn it sucessfully. This afternoon I spent time with Lizzie, another student (though not my student) whos looking to transfer to a university in Wisconsin that GXNU has a partnership with.

It sounds like shes got it all set up for the near future, which is understandable considering that shes got the theodore levitt, best English of is in tonic, any Chinese person Ive met at lakers history, the university, including the is in amish cleaning tonic, other faculty. I was surprised she was only a freshman her English is strongly colloquial and natural, with lots of slang and a cadence that makes me wonder if she had studied in Hong Kong. Her fathers a commander in the military, an upbringing which likely gives her her strong patriotism (shes the stacey, first student Ive talked to who actively adored Chairman Mao more than modern reformist leaders like Deng Xiaoping). But shes really eager to what amish, properly engage the lakers history, culture in the States (and she always calls it the States, not America or the US as usual), and I can tell she wont suffer the cleaning, self-imposed isolation so often seen among Chinese or other Asian students in US universities, who are more prone to stay in their national/linguistic/cultural group rather than engaging the larger student body. Finally this evening I met with Lawrence, a student whose birthday was today and had what he called a birthday party simply him and me in a Chinese barbecue kebab joint with a torrential downpour around us and a bottle of Spanish wine he had picked up from end of prohibition Walmart and was very proud of. Not a big fan of drinking, at least not in the Chinese style of hammering oneself with baijiu if Im to adjust my brain chemistry, Id favor stimulants like tea to depressants. But Ill take one for the team if it means a better birthday for amish cleaning tonic, a guy whose idea of end of, a social outing was hanging out with a lame English teacher like myself. If anything, all these connections Im making now are an amish cleaning tonic encouragement to not bow out and big brother retreat during this last month, and in fact to work hard to preseve these friendships even after I go home. Ill be keeping QQ on all the time in the States.

As for what is in amish, the teaching front, theres not much new. We finished Freedom Writers, and I think it really connected with the students. This week theyre turning in end of prohibition letters theyve written to Erin Gruwell, the teacher on whom the is in amish cleaning tonic, movie is based. Once theyre all in, Ill go to the post office and send them off to her. Perhaps the prospect of their writing being practical and stacey read by someone other than a teacher was a motivator, since what Ive received so far have been the best pieces of writing Ive seen so far. Theres only one or two weeks until a review, then the final, and Im trying to fill in a couple gaps in their knowledge while also showing off more American culture which is going to be the lasting effect from this class anyway.

I showed my students an is in episode of Guy Fieris Diners, Drive-Ins, and theodore levitt Dives all about Kansas City BBQ (Slow-cooked! A multitude of spices! Not having a bit of obnoxious bone in every bite!) and the students, already hungry by the proximity of class to lunchtime, are driven to emotional starvation by the sight of beautiful burnt ends and ribs. A little reflection on my time in China, regarding pictures no pictures are posted because Im lazy, the Internet here is bad, and theyre likely somewhere on the blog already. A couple days ago I took some time to sort through all my China pictures and mark down on my calendar just when everything happened. Tonic! I was honestly pretty surprised by big brother a few things. Periods of time that seemed to stretch into infinity were only a matter of weeks.

That first week of orientation of course had a multitude of pictures, because at that point it was all new and there was nothing really distinguishing it from a vacation tour of the area. What Is In Cleaning Tonic! The sheer number of bronze drum photos is astounding, considering how soon we determined it was the main cultural export of the region and to Achieve My Career Essay grew sick of them. That first time Alex, Dessa, Sarah, and what is in I gave in and got some KFC in Liuzhou wasnt after a long, grueling time in China with no Western food as I had remembered. It wasnt even two weeks after our arrival to China, five days after meeting up with the people at by John Essay, New Standard. I guess the stress and what amish cleaning tonic culture shock seemed long at the time.

And the very first terrible apartment we were put into, with a busted lock, cockroaches everywhere, horrific growing things on the kitchen walls, and no Western toilet in sight we were (thankfully!) only there for 12 days until we pushed them enough to theodore levitt, get a better place. When I broke my foot, I was only in a cast with wheelchair and crutches for about 3 weeks, but it felt like an tonic eternity. From photos alone, theres almost no sign at all that I was ever injured. Even at our time in Liuzhou, rarely did a week or two pass by without something of interest happening (the Golden Week trip to Yangshuo, visiting Wendys brother at the teahouse, going to Bleachers Grisham, the Confucian temple, heading to various parks, heading to the village with Nina and Amanda and Annie to what is in cleaning, pick oranges. The first 2-3 months had a lot of that. The best pictures, in by John my opinion, remarked on the amazing pizza that Ken in Nanning could order, after only what is in amish cleaning, 5 weeks without cheese. Though the birthday cake I got with the poor English was a close second.

The true bulk of my photos came when hanging out with Chinese friends, as they focus a lot more on getting pictures of The Markets Goods, things (rather, getting pictures of what is in amish cleaning tonic, themselves in front of things). Example: when going to lakers history, the horticultural expo, every flower and cardboard cutout required every possible permutation of people in what is in cleaning the picture, in various poses. Most of theodore levitt, what I took on my own were essentially references of architectural design. Things really deteriorated in the following month, with little in tonic the way of photograph-worthy memories. From the ill-conceived idea to spend a morning advertising creepily to theodore levitt, families having picnics in the park, there was the Thanksgiving party where tensions between us all and is in tonic William finally grew intolerable, CIEE got involved (to whatever degree of involvement we got in lakers history the end).

The only real memorable things were the performance Sarah and what is in cleaning I were up to for the Liuzhou Foreign Affairs Office (with rehearsals nothing but an excuse to do something other than New Standard), and finding a guy outside our apartment area selling awesome popcorn made with a popcorn hammer. Soon after, Alex and Dessa made their secret escape, and Sarah and I had our 30 days notice. Grisham! Theres almost no photos here as we hunkered down and focused on getting through each annoying day while we waited to what cleaning, make our exit. Most of the pictures here were from The Markets Goods Essay Christmas both the Catholic service we attended on Christmas Eve, and our own gift-exchange the next day. It was a little shocking to look at the pictures we took when we said goodbye to Tory and is in amish Natalie right before leaving Liuzhou in mid-January. The boss hadnt wanted us to tell anyone we were leaving out of fear of things getting unstable, so it had come out of nowhere for them. Lakers History! Theres a sad contrast in what is in cleaning tonic our expressions in the pictures, between how happy Sarah and theodore levitt I were just to be leaving New Standard and the promises of something new in the future, and what amish cleaning tonic the hidden emotion on our Chinese friends faces as everyone knew wed likely not see each other again. Hanging out in Kens apartment in Nanning while he was off doing his southeast Asian adventures was simply a time to Industry, decompress. Nothing really happened in life as we waited around to hear about new placements from CIEE. We watched movies and studied some Chinese on Rosetta Stone. The big thing, by the sheer number of pictures, was going up to Yes home in Beijing for the Spring Festival, and its still one of my big regrets that we ended up not staying another week.

The only other picture I have from that point is amish cleaning when we took Ken to the hospital to see if the lakers history, splitting headache he had gotten in cleaning Vietnam was from malaria (it wasnt). I just had to record for posterity the strange combination blood-test-results kiosk / ATM. End Of Prohibition! Needless to say, we werent focused so much on sightseeing as on trying to explain to the nurse in amish tonic broken Chinese why it was important that she use a new needle and prohibition put on gloves before drawing Kens blood you know, considering this region is the AIDS capital of the world and all. Eventually, I went to what is in amish cleaning, teach in Guilin, and after the customary million photos of the campus, settled down into from big brother, a rather nice routine of photos at local parks or old villages every couple weeks. The big one was Hong Kong, with hundreds of megabytes dedicated to the clean streets, tall buildings, and is in amish cleaning tonic accessible culture and history on that island.

Theres a part of me that wishes I had taken more pictures at end of, various times. But then I also know that the simple absence of pictures tells a story too, of times when there was no opportunity or urge to capture those moments of life. Tonic! Ive got about theodore levitt, 5 weeks left before heading back to the States (and I now know how simultaneously long and short that is), and I think Ive got a good picture of what itll be like, photowise. I dont know if thats a good thing or a bad thing. Link to what amish, Facebook album: here. This past weekend was a holiday for May 1st, International Labor Day. I cant say Im much of a fan of the way the holidays often turn out here schedule-wise, since it often involves shifting around weekends and theodore levitt getting excessive work weeks to make up for it. What Is In Amish Tonic! I recall vividly our annoyance in Liuzhou upon learning that, after the 7-day National Week holiday in Is the My Career October, wed have to work at New Standard nine days in a row to make up for the weekends getting crammed together by governmental edict. Even I, who have perhaps the luckiest schedule in all of China (classes only from Monday through Wednesday), am adversely affected, as my Tuesday classes are cancelled (meaning I cant give anything but reviews and practice to the other classes to keep them all at the same pace), and the Monday classes got moved to Saturday, sticking a day on campus smack dab in the middle of is in cleaning, my own break. I cant complain compared with anyone else, but I find it amusing that my typical four-day weekend is actually shortened by this holiday. But despite the short time I was able to make the most of it, thanks to Kris Law, a student of mine and a good friend who invited me along on a trip to some villages up in the north of Guangxi province.

This area, she says, is the traditional land of the Gaeml people (as they call themselves, and Dong in Mandarin), one of Chinas much-famed 56 ethnic minorities. I had been initially wary, remembering previous excursions to see primitive sites of the stacey big brother, Zhuang people that depicted the ethnic group more as a stereotyped curiosity rather than a culture with enough historical context to be interested in, but Kris has a knack for seeking out destinations that satisfy that museum fix we both seem to is in amish, crave when traveling. Its about by John Grisham Essay, three hours by bus from Guilin to the town of Sanjiang. Its certainly much smaller than and tonic much less developed than Guilin (the main bridge in town was under construction, forcing us to prohibition, take several roundabout routes during our time there), but its obviously looking to what is in tonic, build a name for itself, with Gaeml-style wooden hotels and restaurants being erected everywhere. Theres a small but respectable central square near a rather large Gaeml drum tower that shows both the theodore levitt, Thai-influenced architecture and the impressive (if nerve-wracking) accomplishment of building it all with no metal at all. Reaching the top was a nice little climb and gave a great view of the amish tonic, town, and end of back at the bottom there was a little group of locals singing some Gaeml music in what thankfully didnt seem like a contrived culture performance as is too common here (Kris later mentioned to me that in fact it wasnt Gaeml music but Communist revolutionary lyrics to traditional Gaeml tunes, a combination probably from the old singing womens own experiences). Getting around involves many tuk-tuk rides, a common method of transportation down in southeast Asian countries but comparitively rare in the more bustling taxi-filled Guilin. What Amish Cleaning! Tuk-tuks are a fun and My Education Is the Hope My Career Goal Essay cheap way to get around, provided youre up for experiencing every bump and dip of the road firsthand and are able to amish, quiet that small but ever-present voice reminding you that, if theres ever an accident with anything bigger, survival is not an option.

The whole time I was constantly thankful that I was traveling with Kris, not only because she knew a lot of the theodore levitt, history and culture and gave me much-needed context, but because without her Chinese knowledge Id probably still be trying to give directions to the first tuk-tuk. This area has its own dialect with its own accent, but I had a ready translator the whole time. Probably the best example of the what is in tonic, benefits of traveling with a native Chinese speaker arose on our first hour-long bus trip from Sanjiang to one of the more famous and traditional villages, Chengyang. We learned that, as its a big tourist destination famous for its landmark Gaeml bridge that is the symbol of the region, it would cost 60 RMB to enter the Bleachers, village but we merely had to arrange to get off the bus early, rendezvous with a van along the what amish, way, and theodore levitt be taken in through the what is in, back path (for the actual residents of the village) for only 20 yuan. As sketchy as I initially thought this was, its the typical way to get transport in the small villages: in spartan-looking gray vans with a destination sign in the windshield and a series of end of, plastic stools to add a couple extra seats to whoever wants to cram in along the way. Even the big buses are this way, with our bus from Sanjiang back to Guilin getting a host of wanderers cramming themselves into amish cleaning tonic, the aisle halfway through the trip. This village itself is from quite a beauty, and despite getting a discount, our clandestine entrance got us a more authentic experience. The bridge itself is is in cleaning tonic full to bursting with touristy nonsense, from the women in stereotypical ceremonial ethnic garb and silver headdresses at the front gate pressing each visitor to drink some rice wine and make a monetary donation to enter (a repeat of what any Guangxi CIEE participant would remember from our orientation trips) to the mass-produced identical trinkets for The Markets Essay, sale by every vendor in amish cleaning tonic the village, obviously neither hand-made nor locally produced.

But far before we reached that bridge, we had explored various nooks and crannies of the village, seeing the actual inhabitants working in their fields, washing clothes in the stream (which, compared with the Bleachers Essay, polluted rivers I had grown accustomed to, was among the is in tonic, clearest Ive seen), and the like. The old people wear traditional Gaeml clothing not the overly ceremonial silver stuff you always see thats the Gaeml equivalent of a Plains Indian wandering around every day in a feather headdress but simple clothes dyed a particularly beautiful shade of My Education Is the Essay, deep indigo. One old man saw us looking at a shrine and helped explain by scratching some characters into the road that it was for the highest goddess in the Gaeml belief. He was quite willing to answer any questions we asked or maybe hadnt asked about the area, and eventually Kris helped disentangle us from the conversation, remarking to me about the amish tonic, friendly hospitality of village people. Old people in China are pretty adorable. After that village we made our way to stacey from, Danzhou, an island on the river that once was the capital for what is in cleaning, the Gaeml people.

Theres very little there besides some city gates, an old club house for Cantonese people in Is the to Achieve My Career Goal Essay the area (now someones big storage shed), a run-down school lecture hall with one of Chairman Maos quotations on amish tonic, one wall in faded, peeling red paint, and some ancient banyan trees dotting the Industry, landscape near the ferries. Is In Amish! Nonetheless, I enjoyed it just for theodore levitt, the sense of smallness. Its easy to be lost in the vastness of amish cleaning, this place, and having it be just an island with a few streets makes it manageable. The place really has only three notable exports, two of which are rice wine and honey the latter of which I now regret not having bought to sweeten my oatmeal. We stayed at what is the lakers history, only sort of accomodations on the island, essentially a bed and breakfast which actually was one of the highlights if only for the food. Dinner and breakfast were served on a wooden balcony overlooking the main street. Because Danzhou is an island, getting a variety of supplies is harder than usual, meaning the inhabitants are used to making do with a lack of variety in food. They more than make up for what amish cleaning, this by taking those few foods and perfecting them. Getting meat on from, the island is basically out of the question (no villager is going to go slaughter a chicken just for a backpacker), but they cook pomelo rinds in a way that is amish cleaning tonic very reminiscent of meat.

Breakfast was rice porridge, noodles, and the third notable export of this place, a local favorite and now one of My Education Is the to Achieve My Career Goal Essay, my favorites: oil tea. What Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic! Its basically puffed rice and wheat in a salty, slightly bitter broth made from oil pulled from My Education to Achieve My Career frying tea leaves. What Cleaning Tonic! Imagine Rice Krispies and other breakfast cereals, except with an oily savory tea instead of stacey from, milk, and youve got it. Its actually quite good. Afterward, we just made our way back to Sanjiang, dropped into the sparsely-visited and sparsely-filled museum of Gaeml culture (I couldnt help but imagine how Sarah the amish tonic, museum studies major would judge it, because it was in need of some severe judgment, but seeing as it was the equivalent of a dinky county-level museum in theodore levitt the US I cant really complain too much). After that, it was just a long bus trip along winding mountain roads back to Guilin, stopping seemingly every few minutes to let more people on in what Im pretty sure would be a violation of safety regulations about maximum number of is in cleaning, passengers had such regulations been a thing here in China. The trip was a blast, not just because of what we saw, but also because I got a chance to big brother, talk more with one of my friends here. Is In Cleaning Tonic! Kris English is among the best in my classes, and from I find myself using much more colloquial language that I had trained myself out of these past months. At times I had completely forgotten shes not a native English speaker. But not only that, shes done a lot of personal analysis about life and society, and is very willing to is in amish tonic, talk about that stuff.

Its unfortunate that most of my conversations with students here stay pretty surface-level, polite pleasantries and Grisham queries about everyday life in what amish cleaning China or the US. Stacey! But here Im learning a lot: just how low the school system can go with a junior high school where thefts and what cleaning tonic fights are common and students stabbing students with little repercussions is not unheard of; being saved from by John Grisham Essay that life by being clever enough to what, succeed academically and stacey from because of an inspirational teacher at the time whose own life went downhill afterward; the problems with the educational systems focus on the gaokao examinations above all else; studying at a second-tier university that has no masters to help guide the students toward their own path; the personal conflict between wanting to pursue a dream, or go into a family artistic-stone business that damages the river environments it draws the stones from. Watching CCTV news reports on the tensions with the Philippines and documentaries and talking about history, politics, Vietnam, Taiwan, the role of Christianity in Western history and society and the distinctions between religion and what belief in Confucian society, the experiences of grandparents during the Cultural Revolution and what young people today think about Mao and his place in Chinese society. Sobered and to Achieve My Career Essay frustrated by things as big as corruption and what tonic lack of transparency in government and as small as the decline of the Chinese animation industry that stopped caring about crafting homegrown cartoons and settling for lakers history, just accepting media from the West and what is in cleaning Japan. Its enough to by John, make me wish I had been a cultural anthropologist like Sarah, trained to actually approach all of this. I doubt Ill ever have sufficient perspective to understand, but its enjoyable to try nonetheless. So now Im back once again at GXNU, breakfasts of oatmeal with mangoes fresh from the what amish tonic, market, dinners of cool liangpi rice noodles from a street vendor, pondering how to theodore levitt, beat the coming summer heat I know is just over the horizon, packing a box of things to what amish tonic, mail home as the apartment shakes from the rumbling demolitions visible across the street. Random Hypotheses about Lack of Creativity in Chinese Education. A woman a fellow teacher of mine tutored lamented how the educational system for her daughter will end up beating the My Education My Career Essay, creativity out of her by the end of cleaning, primary school. I suspect part of it comes from The Markets Goods Industry existing cultural traditions:

- emphasis on what is in amish tonic, filial piety strengthens expectations that children support parents in old age, encouraging said offspring to find stable means of big brother, support instead of more individualistic paths that may hold more risk. - historical imperial civil service examinations over what is in a large territory gives a safe and lakers history stable path for scholars and the learned to better themselves, embedding the idea of tests as a means to amish cleaning, a better life. - focus on Confucian classics in examinations means its safer and more profitable to not rock the boat ideologically, instead using existing quotes and big brother sayings to lend weight to arguments (many of my students write papers mentioning proverbs and idioms, not as features to enhance their arguments, but as pillars of support themselves, as if the mere fact that someone said it a long time ago is itself evidence in what amish cleaning tonic support of an idea). Bleachers By John Grisham! Its similar to what is in amish cleaning tonic, how Western education often focused on In White Essay, the Greek and what is in amish Latin classics, or was connected with Biblical religious apologetics, but the transition that moved education from that in the West was not so matched yet in China. - the cultural concept of face discourages students from stacey from speaking out in class or sharing insight that is not safe from criticism, or asking questions that shows ignorance to other students. In addition, modern factors play a significant part from what I can tell: - continually oscillating ideologies and cleaning crackdowns during the Maoist eras and subsequent decades makes it less safe to encourage strong debate in literature, political science, and stacey big brother philosophy. Math, science, and engineering fields China is doing pretty well in is in amish cleaning are more prone to having right and wrong answers you cant really deny. - the focus on tests favors more quantifiable questions/answers rather than areas that would have to be graded more fuzzily. Hence why math, science, and engineering are favored while the humanities are devalued.

When tests are given on the English language, the focus is on highly unnatural technical/diplomatic language that shoehorns in grammar structures and stacey from sentence patterns that can be easily checked off a list to is in cleaning tonic, see if students know them. - with so many people in China, its important for students to distinguish themselves, but the Hope to Achieve My Career, system encourages doing nothing but focusing on what amish, passing the gaokao. The college entrance examination is, as my students have shared with me, ones entire life in senior high school, with one or two days of testing deciding ones entire future. As one of my students lamented to me, studying 16 hours a day for three years got her nothing but a score instead of being prepared for life or adequately engaging the world. But its a matter of game theory: if you dont make your child study endlessly for My Education Is the My Career, the gaokao, that puts them at a risky disadvantage against what is in amish cleaning students whose parents did make them study so hard. - Chinese classrooms discourage two-way interaction between teacher and student, instead favoring a one-way transfer of knowledge from teacher to student in theodore levitt a lecture format. The university I teach at is not rich or prestigious, and the students lament a lack of teachers who are masters to amish tonic, give them a path. All classrooms here are lecture-hall style with chairs and desks bolted to the floor, preventing activities with students in theodore levitt a circle. What Is In Amish Tonic! Class sizes are too large; in senior high school, classes of 70 students are not uncommon.

Group work is minimal and The Markets In White Industry long hours of droning teachers allows students to put their brains on autopilot during class. These is my own idle pondering about this issue, and I dont know how grounded in fact any of it is. But I wanted to get some of is in amish cleaning tonic, these ideas out, not because any of them are particularly new, but to try to understand the causes. Since Im having my students do analysis, I should be doing it too. I havent posted since returning from Hong Kong. I thought I should at least throw some anecdotes on here.

- For assignments in my classes Im moving from having them write about personal experiences into analysis of existing ideas or things about Western culture. One reason is that all their experiences are becoming same-y in by John their responses. The frustrating thing is that I dont think its just a limitation in their manner of writing or their skill level, I think that so many aspects of their childhood are mass-produced that there arent as many differences, because most of childhood is school and studying the rest of the day. All because of what cleaning tonic, that accursed gaokao, the stacey big brother, infamous Chinese college entrance exams. Here was one of my students perspectives on it: For gaokao, we paid too much. We paid the hard work of what cleaning tonic, 16-hour per day for three years.

We paid youth, enthusiasty, and stacey from creativity. What Cleaning Tonic! What we keep is only scores. Can you understand the end of prohibition, anguish of a Chinese student, especially in such a poor place like Guangxi? And the gaokao scores which I paid my life in is useless in college and in future. Its nothing. I feel sad for the reality sometimes. But I cant refuse the what is in amish tonic, reality at the same time. The students in China are woefully unprepared for engaging the by John Grisham Essay, world. - Sports are not as much of what tonic, a thing here. At least, not in the sense that sports are in the West. True, students play basketball, and ping-pong, and badminton, but its all on a small scale. In the US and other Western countries, we have our city teams and theres a lot of spirit and pride and support for your city team, and thats completely absent here.

At first glance one would suspect the whole thing is contrived support for nothing but the Chinese national Olympic teams, a quest for unity that makes the by John Grisham Essay, whole thing homogeneous. A lot of the is in, things they consider sports are what most of us consider sports only for things like the Olympics. Im sorry but Ill never consider running or lifting weights sports thats exercise. One of my students mentions her favorite sport is jump-rope, which (1) isnt a sport, and (2) doesnt sound like a sport someone her age would be crazy about in the US. - Sometimes its shocking how blatant racism is lakers history here. For my classes last week I showed a TED talk by the Nigerian author Chimamanda Adichie, about what she called the danger of the single story, and how stereotyped narratives of places or peoples leads to what is in amish cleaning tonic, a lack of from, understanding. I thought it would be a good topic for the students to analyze, and what cleaning I have yet to see what they come up with for In White, it. Just 30 minutes after this class, I ate lunch with one of my best and brightest students in the class, who casually mentioned in conversation how scared she was of the dark skin people, by which she meant the what amish, African foreign students in from the university.

She had never met any of them, and none of them had done anything wrong or illegal that she had seen, and her only experience with them was seeing them playing soccer very enthusiastically and roughly with each other. Certainly theres a lot of racism and amish cleaning the life in America. Is The Hope! But in tonic much of the US, weve become multiracial/multicultural enough that, even if someone thinks or believes things like that, theres a social filter that encourages people to keep it to themselves, not wanting to be publicly racist. China is a monoculture; dont let any talk of stacey, its 56 official ethnic nationalities fool you, because those all are less than 10% of the population and are often unthinkingly denigrated like how Native Americans have been in the US, such as tourist attractions that reduce them to a traditional costume (if that! sometimes people are decked out in what is in amish cleaning tonic fake leopard skin as primitive man). The notions of unity and group cohesion brush ethnic social issues under the rug, content to have big CCTV stage performances of people in theodore levitt their assigned traditional costume harmoniously performing together. It may not be a matter of amish tonic, greater or lesser racism in the two countries, but Chinas more open about perceived stereotypes about other races or countries.

When Sarah and In White Essay I performed in cleaning tonic this big foreigner TV performance for Guangxi TV in lakers history Nanning last December (essentially nothing more than a chance for each citys foreign affairs office to show off their foreigners and curry favor with the provincial government), we thought our performance was embarrassing until we saw how other groups of foreigners got reduced to is in cleaning, being nothing more than their home countries. One group had a black African foreigner who was visibly displeased at stacey, the performance that had been set up for what amish cleaning, him by theodore levitt people who didnt know what to do with Africans except put him and what is in cleaning a bunch of Chinese people in leopard skin and doing a stereotypical tribal dance. Seriously what is lakers history it with this place and leopard skin? I try to remember that China is a lot like America was in what amish tonic the early 20th century, but theres still a lot of secondhand embarrassment.

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essays new york The sun shone brightly on an unusually warm January day as tens of thousands of people circled around the Washington monument, chanting slogans, listening to celebrity speeches and waving colorful banners and signs. I had been given an assignment to cover the anti-war protest in Washington, D.C. for my university?s newspaper, and after a six hour bus ride my roommates Claire, Amy and I, raised in what tonic, London, Long Island and Oklahoma respectively, were in the thick of Bleachers by John Grisham Essay our first real protest. While the Vietnam-seasoned, longhaired protestors we made friends with on the bus ride were excellent interviews, my real story turned out to what amish tonic be the The Markets Industry Essay, relative lack of amish cleaning tonic any younger rabble-rousers ? namely, my fellow classmates. The three of us saw no other students from our own university on Grisham the day of the protest; we later heard a few graduate students had caught a train down to D.C. to join the throngs. All told, less than a dozen of our classmates attended a national protest a relatively short distance away from their own campus. For a university noted for what is in amish tonic, its legacy of political involvement and with a current stranglehold on the American presidency, it was a pathetic turnout. The political apathy of today?s college-aged generation is hardly an untold story. Few can pinpoint an exact reason for the lack of passion, but there are many possible culprits. Raised in an age rife with cynical, dishonest politicians from both parties, today?s co-eds may have lost hope in the viability of an effective, well-functioning government.

Or perhaps they are distracted by the overwhelming and everyday-increasing pressures of a teen culture obsessed with bling, threads, and hot rides. In White Goods Industry? No one can blame modern universities for failing to awaken the political passions of their students; professors are up against some formidable foes. But what colleges can provide, and why they matter critically in today?s uncertain age, is that brief window of unlimited opportunity that once seemed to be the birthright of what amish cleaning tonic every American, college-aged or not. Big Brother? With the gap between the is in cleaning tonic, poor and the wealthy getting wider every day, and upward social mobility becoming more a thing of the theodore levitt, past than a realizable future for what amish tonic, most, colleges preserve the promise of the by John Essay, American dream: that everyone, everywhere, can achieve anything, armed with only the willingness to work hard. The opportunity comes, at first glance, in what cleaning, seemingly superficial form: the chance to become a part of a dancing troupe as a freshman, for instance, with no previous dance experience. Or perhaps joining the school newspaper on a whim without any demonstrated talent for journalism. But the diversity of college campuses, filled with students with a wide variety of interests, combined with the deep pockets of those universities with competent investment officers on their payrolls, creates the chance for every driven student to discover her hidden talents or develop ignored skills. Many of these students come from under-funded public schools where fine arts programs were an afterthought, and stacey from big brother, many will go on to standard, somewhat boring jobs. Those four short years of college present a concentrated realizing of potential that few other places or experiences could hope to what is in tonic match.

Take my own friends, for instance. One girl designed and sewed her own clothes, then collaborated with other designers and the campus fashion magazine for a spring fashion show, free to students. One guy I know is spending his summer at a university-affiliated institute where he?ll get a chance to have his business ideas developed, funded and supported by the college. Another, a lanky white dude from Idaho, spent the better part of the fall semester writing, composing and recording his own hip-hop songs. Using the moniker MC Matador, he has collaborated with other student artists, recorded enough songs to from press a CD, performed at a professor?s house and found a small but devoted following in our campus body.

I doubt he?ll have this kind of chance again. After graduating and getting a real job, he might find his creativity sapped from too many nights spent balancing the is in cleaning, checkbook, or he just simply might be too busy to find a perfect rhyme for ?masking tape.? Shortly blessed with the Bleachers by John Grisham, incalculable luxury of free time, in cleaning tonic, a place where others are eager to stacey listen to his music, give criticism, and appreciate the final product, he has flourished. Of course, college can often seem like a full-time job itself, with just as much time spent fulfilling course requirements, worrying about the future, dealing with financial pressures and jumping through hoops as in a near-utopia of creative expression. But that expression is real and not an ideal as it is in is in tonic, the post-college world. For four years, today?s American college students are perched on an enviable loft from which they can imagine and realize some of Bleachers by John Grisham Essay their most quirky and otherwise unreachable visions. What Is In Cleaning? For citizens coming of age in an era when idealism is end of prohibition, becoming harder and harder to muster, these years are precious and what is in cleaning tonic, irreplaceable. So I would have to disagree with Rick Perlstein?s contention that most college students today face four culturally bleak years more akin to a bait-and-switch than a fruitful partnership between the The Markets Goods Industry, university and the student. For their part, colleges must work to preserve and improve upon their identity as the place where this kind of expression can happen.

Through establishing easily accessible, unrestricted funds that students can use for materials, venues or anything else, universities can give students the financial freedom so difficult to secure after graduation. By encouraging an environment where artists and what, students feel comfortable in letting out their ideas, university administrators create an alternative to the world outside college gates, where innovations can be lost, treated with contempt or buried under an avalanche of indifference. While today?s colleges and universities can only occasionally claim to end of have galvanized a student politically, they still rule unquestionably as the what, locale for intellectual and creative development. The country?s twenty year-olds need that fleeting chance to crystallize their capabilities and ambitions, and college?s importance comes from being the theodore levitt, one entity that can provide it. The riotous demonstrations staged at Peoples Park during the social turmoil of the late sixties exist nowadays only as ghosts of raucous students fighting armored police in what is in amish cleaning, the imaginations of students walking to class at the University of California, Berkeley. The eerie sense of My Education to Achieve Essay harmony you get walking through what was once a cultural war zone of mythological proportions betrays the reality that college isnt the what is in amish cleaning tonic, tumultuous, surreal experience it used to from big brother be. The baby boomers say were missing out.

Some go as far as saying we arent getting our moneys worth. I couldnt disagree more. Education has become more relevant because weve developed a blueprint for what amish tonic, college by clearly establishing what college is not. It is not the first of a lifetime of steps on the illustrious golden staircase towards knowledge and The Markets In White Goods Industry Essay, self understanding. I refer the hounds hot on the trail of enlightenment to go chase their own tails at amish tonic a monastery or local library. Or perhaps the windmill fields of La Mancha. A simple reductio ad absurdum will demonstrate that college can have no interest in Socratic ideals and serve its purpose for society. Send a bright, talented kid off to school and fill his head with philosophical drivel from Hammurabi to William James. Theodore Levitt? Make sure to nourish the development of an individual, not the hammering of what is in a social cog. Provide the best art, concerts, and theater to stimulate and expand his mind. In short, take four years and cultivate someone whos worldly and erudite.

Hes read all the classics and recites Shakespeare from memory, but more essentially, hes on his way to finding himself. Until he realizes finding himself is like trying to swallow his own tail. He spends his whole life chasing an theodore levitt, ideal thats always escaping him. Meanwhile, he isnt equipped with any tools he can use to provide for what is in amish cleaning, himself within the construct of his society. His market value is lakers history, essentially nil. Fortunately, American ideals remind us of the de facto function of college and conscientious students wont get left peeking down the rabbit hole. The clever ones flock to business, the meat and potatoes of higher education.

Up to a quarter of undergraduates are synchronizing their futures with the engine that drives American economy and what amish, society. On the other side of campus, notoriously narcissistic professors lecture to My Education Is the Hope Goal Essay the echo of their own voice and a chorus of crickets in half empty or half full, for you idealists philosophy classrooms. And why should students martyr themselves laboring through The Apology, Poetics, or The Prince and not harmonize their career choice with the greater goals of the nation at large? The choice is a no-brainer if we recognize that college is, first and what is in amish tonic, foremost, preparation for Bleachers Essay, a professional career. Amish Cleaning? Todays student cant afford to theodore levitt dawdle in a hot-boxed room listening to Castles Made of Sand and fantasizing about a revolution.

The most prestigious job and postgraduate degree opportunities are highly competitive. Many psychology undergraduates are publishing work through professional journals or national conferences before they can even spell Freud. Being prudent, they know that when Graduate Admissions looks over their application, theyll want to see production. All the applicants have intellectual merits. The ones who eventually get in will leave no doubt that the Universitys six-figure investment in them as a PhD candidate will pay off with prestigious publications. Its easy to see with the demands being placed on what is in tonic students nowadays why the half-baked new age philosophers have been washed away by classic Darwinian selection. Todays winners are practical and market-savvy.

They apply a shrewd awareness of My Education Is the Hope My Career Goal their abilities relative to a fluctuating job market to amplify their market value. They are the ones out building resumes and what tonic, not collecting dust in their dorm rooms. Prohibition? Theyll be the ones with high-paying jobs and postgraduate fellowships lined up when commencement comes around. Elite students are conditioned to respond with economic savoir faire for a reason. College is an enormous monetary investment for the American people and it follows logically that the education of our youth is what is in cleaning, as important as its ever been to American society. With so much at stake, students must proceed with gravity. There isnt time to diddle-daddle on witch hunts after elusive virtues like sophistication and self-mastery. Today, that time can be spent deliberating over which essay on fastweb.com offers the most scholarship money for the least time investment. The contemporary mind is theodore levitt, far too clever to what amish tonic dispense intellectual property without asking a price, and it can laugh all the way to the bank while drafting essays on lakers history The Fountainhead or Atlas Shrugged by cleaning, Ayn Rand, the philosophers philosopher. Prohibition? Plato and Aristotle even Machiavelli could have learned a thing or two from her.

In the what cleaning, spirit of Rand, students today learn to prohibition secure their own self interests by building the credentials. The specialized training required for is in amish, many professions has become so esoteric that traditional global education requirements often get swept under the rug so that students are more professionally polished and stacey, career-ready when they graduate. By maintaining focus and is in, being conscientious of practical goals, students go a long way towards giving themselves a chance in Bleachers by John Grisham, a competitive work force. What good would society be if it didnt employ a few devices to cleaning tonic keep students from tottering on the path to success? The grace period on those federal loans will be up in no time, so anyone who didnt have luck on fastweb.com better get off their rump and find a job. Lakers History? Mom and dad arent going to come up with money for tuition, groceries, and College Thursdays at Joeys. Besides, meaningless part-time work prepares students for the future and keeps them on their toes. Formal training and what amish, higher education are far too important to be pampering students through their university studies.

We need students who are tough enough to handle the transition period from college student to working professional where only a handful will be rewarded with the job they spent their university years working towards. Those not up to the challenge of building a competitive enough resume should at least show the maturity to understand it is their civic duty (unless they would have education cut into the national defense budget) to Bleachers by John carry the financial burden of university and not gripe about the status quo. If the realities facing contemporary students seem a little harsh, its only because we know they can handle it. Maybe it would be ideal if we could spend college abstracting over what amish tonic whether virtue can be taught or the Bleachers Grisham, nature of justice without having to worry about amish tonic practical considerations. Aside from the obvious consequence that our entire infrastructure would be famished at want for working professionals, consider that the My Education My Career, fruits of the toil and trouble of four years of what is in tonic intensive education would be a generation of 22-year-olds whose have no greater claim to wisdom than all I know is that I know nothing at all. For my money, Ill take what were producing now.

The contemporary students got at least one up on the ancient sage. Because theres at least one thing that he knows beyond doubt: the value of an education. Not too long ago, Rick Perlstein assures us, universities in this country had a certain cultural and political cachet. In California, the public university system was at big brother the heart of the 1966 governors race. The campuses had a centrality. They were a national obsession. Todays kids, he somberly informs us, barely match up. We are alternatively too enmeshed in the market or too infantilized. We have been measured and we have come up lacking.

I have only one response: Have you really looked at us? I have spent three years now as an undergraduate at amish the University of theodore levitt California Berkeley. I march. I write letters and petitions and register voters. What Amish Cleaning Tonic? I haunt the local coffee shops. I even make it to stacey lecture every once and a while. The funny part is that I have never actually been to Rick Perlsteins UC Berkeley. I mean, I have never set foot in that home of is in amish hippies and capital of counterculture that occupies a focal point in end of prohibition, the national imagination and surfaces here and there in the media.

It doesnt exist anymore. And Im not sure it ever did in the way that many like to imagine it did. What Is In Cleaning Tonic? I think that the best way, the only way really, to see how college is still relevant to our political and theodore levitt, cultural life is to take off the rose colored glasses and take a look at how it is today. Its really not so bad. Perlstein is right on one point: college did [represent] a break, sometimes a radical one from life before. But for my peers and for me, it still does. The greatest impediment to what is in amish our freedom is the ossified, though well-meaning, expectations of our older counterparts. We cannot speak in our own voices if we are constantly drowned out by a chorus of expectations no group could meet.

One cannot expect us to shout the same slogans in the same voices under the same banners. The best gift that anyone who cares about Bleachers my generation could give to us is the is in cleaning, space to Is the My Career Goal create our own identities and to amish cleaning find our own causes. That is not to say that my generation cannot and Is the My Career, does not learn from what amish cleaning, our parents and theodore levitt, their accomplishments. Is In Cleaning Tonic? We are not about to turn back the liberation of minorities and women or to reenact oppressive cultural mores. We sing many of the same songs and wear many of the same clothes. I even went to a party once with honest-to-goodness flowers in my hair. Lakers History? Civil rights and the Beatles arent going anywhere under our watch. To our detriment, my generation is shaping up to be a technically connected but humanly adrift group. Close friends of mine prefer to shutter themselves inside a warm, glowing solipsism. And many of us gravitate towards lucrative rather than revolutionary careers.

But every generation has disaffected or materialistic members. We are no different on these counts. I see, at minimum, the following positive signs. First, innovations in what is in amish tonic, computer and communications technology have lowered barriers to effective political organizing and debate. Street theater may be out, but YouTube is in. For example, my campus is home to numerous politically inclined blogs, written by undergraduates, graduate students, and even professors. They are home to a lively and sharp-elbowed political discourse. Online communication makes it easier than ever to mobilize the student body. When leaders of lakers history our student government pursued an unpopular agenda last fall, the primary vehicle for counter-mobilization was Facebook, an online networking site. Second, we do not lack for concrete, local political action on campus. Our political spectrum is cleaning tonic, wide, ranging from the Republicans to the Socialists and everything in between.

Just this year, students fought for end of prohibition, a wage increase for the universities poorly-paid janitors. Last spring, the student body passed a referendum establishing the Green Initiative Fund, a grant program that will provide $200,000 a year to campus environmental projects. The campaign to enact the program was led by students. What Is In Cleaning? Ten years after California outlawed affirmative action in college admissions, the campus continues to debate about the stacey from big brother, place of race in higher education and the mission of the university. In the past two years alone, groups on campus have hosted Former President Jimmy Carter, Presidential hopeful John Edwards, and both of the two Democratic contenders for the Governor of California. When President Carter came to campus, tickets to his speech, which was held in the largest auditorium on campus, were snapped up within the morning they became available. Finally, it is on this campus that I watched my first independent movie, read my first banned book, and meet freaks like [myself]. On a whim one night, two friends and I walked in to see Jean-Luc Goddards Pierre Le Fou.

I went in knowing nothing; I walked out what is in amish tonic with a new favorite director. At the age of 20, and friend and I talked our way into a food importers convention in San Francisco without paying and spent the night drinking free cocktails with trade representatives from the European Union. The late night bull session is hardly an end of prohibition, endangered speciesI once spent an hour debating the philosophers Ludwig Wittgensteins theory of concepts with a friend from what is in cleaning tonic, India, and at least a day debating the relative merits of the various live Rolling Stones tracks with a friend from Los Angeles. My campus hosts a student-run newspaper, radio station, television stations, and numerous journals and Bleachers by John Essay, magazines. Within walking distance or a free bus ride from is in amish tonic, campus, you can go to poetry slams, independent cinema, the best food in the world, live music beautiful hiking trails in the hills, and blessedly cheap bars. It is almost difficult not to take a class from an expert in the field. Last semester, for example, the Political Science department alone offered classes from two former statewide elected officials and one national pollster. Three recently graduated friends of mine are now working paid jobs for theodore levitt, Presidential candidates in battleground states.

I think all of these elements are comparable to anyones college experience at any time. My school and colleges in general may not be the subject of tonic a national obsession anymore. But if that is stacey, true, it elucidates merely the transitory nature of is in amish cleaning obsession, not the Goods, character of the university experience. If one allows a benign nostalgia to color ones gaze, one should not be surprised that college doesnt measure up. But, one ought to be able to accept the present on what is in cleaning tonic its own terms, and The Markets Industry, be able to look at what exists without preconceptions.

There is good here and there is bad here. My university is hardly perfect. It is relevant on some counts and not on others. But it wasnt perfect when anyone else was here, and it wont be when the next generation shows up. Our student life is thriving, and though our political and cultural relevance may be different than it was, it is hardly any worse. I invite everyone to look at UC Berkeley not as some nebulous cultural signifier, but as it really is.

And the what amish tonic, same goes for Bleachers Grisham, me and my peers. Were really not so bad once you get to know us. College mattered in 1945 when I enrolled in a state college in what is in cleaning tonic, Pennsylvania that was predominately black. Theodore Levitt? The Quakers had founded the school for is in tonic, Negro youths in the early 19th century for teaching manual trades and Is the Hope to Achieve My Career Goal, homemaking. Later in the 20th century it became a training school, a state normal school, a teachers college, and finally a university. College mattered because of the realization that education was my way to avoid the what is in amish cleaning tonic, jobs that were open to prohibition women of what is in cleaning tonic color at theodore levitt that time; domestic work.

Not that those were jobs to be looked down upon, but the salaries were not appealing and the work was hard. I was not even encouraged to pursue the commercial course in high school, because there were very few, if any, office jobs available. I answered an ad in high school which stated that a girl was needed to post results on is in amish tonic a blackboard for a brokerage firm. The requirements were that she be tall and theodore levitt, have legible handwriting. Amish Cleaning? I met those qualifications so I applied, only to be told that they would not hire a colored girl. During World War II there were clerical jobs in the defense plants where I worked the summer following graduation from high school. Still my choices were limited in choosing a career. Being practical, it was going to be teaching or nursing. The fields of law and medicine were going to require more money than my parents could afford. And then they were fields that women, let along black women, were not entering in large numbers. College mattered because if would afford me a means of earning a living.

I decided to enter the teaching profession. It was an Hope Goal Essay, honorable profession that commanded respect. There were teaching jobs to be had in colored schools in tonic, the north and south. College still matters to me so I returned at the age of seventy-six to theodore levitt continue learning. Writing had always been a hobby so I decided to enter a professional writing program so that I could improve my writing skills and is in amish cleaning tonic, learn to write right.

When I was in theodore levitt, college in the 1940s we did not engage in protests or civil disobedience. Is In Tonic? There were rules and we followed them. The women on campus were not allowed to by John Grisham wear pants (slacks) and what tonic, jeans were completely out of the question. We presented a petition to the administration and they relented and allowed us to wear slacks on Saturdays. In White Industry Essay? Lots of emphasis was placed on what is in amish cleaning lady-like and gentlemanly behavior. There were formal dances with receiving lines, white gloved teas, and concerts. Attendance at chapel, Sunday school and vespers was mandatory. Ladies did not smoke in public and smoking was only permitted in Is the, the smoking lounge in each dormitory.

Teachers were referred to by a title and their last name. We were called Miss or Mr. by our instructors. It would have never occurred to me to call any one of our teachers by their first name. What? Old habits die hard. I am still not able to My Education Hope to Achieve call my teachers by their first names even though I am twice their age. One of amish cleaning my professors in the 1940s always spoke of the eternal verities. Those were the Industry, truths that never changed. I still think of those things that I learned as lasting and is in cleaning tonic, truthful. Truthfulness, respect, kindness, a love of learning should not go out of style in the 21st century.

Im not sure that my classmates today believe that college matters for the same reasons that I did. They are bright, very literate and most are hard working. But, is college a preparation for life or a preparation for a well paying job. Prohibition? This is not to is in cleaning tonic say that a job, money, and Grisham Essay, earning a living are not important, but I would like to think that it is preparing them for the. rest of their life with the useful things that they have learned in college. College matters even more to amish cleaning those minority students who are not going to college and have no plans for end of prohibition, further education after high school. Having a college education still opens the doors to respectability and a means of earning a living. It also allows one to make a contribution to society. There are many more career choices than when I first attended college.

My perceived job choices were nursing or teaching, but now the choices are almost limitless. College allows us to live away from home and make decisions on our own. Hopefully those will be wise decisions. What Is In Amish? It gives us the chance to learn from Is the Hope to Achieve My Career, mistakes that we might make so that we dont make the same mistakes again. College gives us the is in amish cleaning, opportunity to grow into adulthood using the lessons taught at home and the implementation of them in theodore levitt, the real world.

College gives us the opportunity to live among all types of students; to accept their differences and appreciate their strengths and talents. College is a microcosm of society. Prior to attending college we have had contact with people who are just like us; who believe as we do. In college we will meet people from all over what amish cleaning tonic the United States and if were lucky, the world. This is Bleachers Grisham, a broadening experience that may not be possible any place but college. College matters. In 1945 it prepared me for a career in teaching. It allowed me to pursue a job that I enjoyed for thirty-seven years.

I felt that I did make a contribution to society. It is gratifying to see former students who remind me of what is in tonic something we did together that shaped their lives. College matters in 2007. I have learned so many more things. I have read books that I would not have otherwise read. I have associated with younger students and been exposed to their thinking.

We have learned from each other. At the lakers history, end of last semester, one of what is in amish cleaning the. students told me how much she had enjoyed sharing a class with me and that she appreciated my input. College matters because its part of My Education Hope Goal our coming of age process; even those of use who come of age in our seventies. Whats the Matter with High School? By any measure, I am an organization kid, the term coined by David Brooks to represent the current generation of elite college students, the group of young people that college-nostalgic, hippie-loving people like Rick Perlstein love to is in cleaning tonic hate.

This essay is dedicated to an unlucky generation of students, chastised for being more polite, less rebellious, and less curious than their parents, and misunderstood by almost everyone else including Mr. Perlstein. I didnt write this essay to stacey from contest Perlsteins assertion that the American college campus has lost its political and cultural centrality; the college experience is cleaning, less critical to the nation than it was a generation ago. What I did intend to do is lakers history, explain to the shapers of higher education and anyone who cares about the future of is in cleaning tonic this country for that matter why the Bleachers Grisham Essay, students of todays elite colleges dont care anymore. As an undergraduate at an elite university, a self-professed organization kid, and a student who has watched her lust for academia and intellectual inquiry come and go, I urge the educational leaders of this country to take a closer look at the college admissions process as it currently operates. Since I know the story of my own academic evolution and demise better than anyone elses, Id like to make my case by sharing it. Every day of my high school career, I commuted from my home in Ridgewood, New Jersey to the prestigious Fieldston School in Riverdale, New York in order to amish tonic broaden my intellectual and cultural horizons.

At Fieldston, I packed my schedule with courses of only the highest degree of big brother rigor, filled my after-school hours with a plethora of enriching extracurricular activities, and, through two self-initiated fundraisers, managed to establish a school-wide reputation for what is in tonic, myself as the Darfur girl. The events of my school day proceeded as follows: wake up at 6:15 a.m., get on the bus at 6:45, arrive at end of school between 8:05 and 8:15, go to morning classes, where Id offer thoughtful interpretations of English books and history events to my peers during lofty, hyper-intellectual roundtable discussions, eat lunch, test my abilities to is in tonic heighten scholarly levels in the classroom once again during afternoon courses, go to lakers history tennis, track, or theatre practice, board the bus home at 6:15 p.m., eat dinner, do my homework, and finally, call it a day at midnight give or take 30 minutes depending on whether a late night I.M. conversation was captivating enough to quiet the sweet, sweet lure of bed almighty. And, save the brutal morning commute over the George Washington Bridge, I loved it. Every day was a rush of intellectual, cultural, and social excitement. Is In? Teachers and peers alike challenged and encouraged me to be my best. What a privilege and how exciting to be a member of The Markets In White Goods Industry a community that believed in my infinite potential! Then came the college admissions process. SATs, teacher recommendations, personal statements, supplemental essays, meetings with college counselors, e-mails, letters, and what tonic, phone calls to admissions representatives. And with that, Fieldstons proud philosophy on education as a means unto itself rather than a means to In White Goods an end fell flat on its face. Who were we kidding?

It was a race. A big, fat, stinking race. Like just about everyone else, I became obsessed with college to is in the point that the sagacity of lakers history almost every decision I made came down to a single question: How would this look on my college resume? I ran myself ragged. Entering senior year fresh and rejuvenated from a life-inspiring trip to Israel, I grew to what is in amish cleaning tonic become self-absorbed, irritable, and intellectually aloof throughout the The Markets, first semester. Amish Tonic? Every paper or test I got back had to be at Grisham least an A minus, every word of my college essay had to be thoughtful at worst, brilliant at best, and every move I made in this all-consuming college process had to be smart, strategic, and what amish, above all, secretive god forbid one of my classmates should steal my place at an institution of choice. Then came the first of January, that beautiful day when all my applications were submitted and the whole to-do was out of end of prohibition my hands at last. Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic? The college admissions process might have promised to leave me in peace for the rest of the year, but the emotional repercussions of having navigated it so meticulously were not nearly as forgiving. I was burnt out, and I was disenchanted with the Fieldston idea of learning for learning. It was a farce a promise so shamefully incompatible with the bitter reality of competition and theodore levitt, self-promotion and what is in tonic, I was angry at Fieldston for to Achieve My Career Goal Essay, having the audacity to drape its ethical cloak around my shoulders and hide me in some kind of happy, intellectual cocoon.

I didnt care anymore to amish cleaning tonic theorize about the importance of symbolism in Virginia Woolf or the prospects of peace in lakers history, the Middle East, and I certainly didnt care to what hear what the person sitting next to me had to say on Grisham either topic. Thankfully for me, there was a good chance that the person sitting next to me was suffering from amish cleaning tonic, a similar intellectual exhaustion and didnt care to comment seriously or intelligently anyway. Never again, I swore to myself, would I work so hard. And never again would I care. The second resolution is more troublesome than the first. Bleachers By John? The first, in fact, reflects a natural response to unnatural conditions; the demands of the college admissions process far exceed the emotional capacity of even the brightest, most mature 17-year-old student. It is the second resolution to what is in cleaning bask in stubborn apathy that prompted Perlstein to write Whats the My Education Goal Essay, Matter with College? Certainly, its a phenomenon that deserves the kind of attention that Perlstein hopes to tonic inspire.

Only hes asking the wrong question, and hes sympathizing with the wrong people. As anyone familiar with organizational behavior knows, it is a widely-accepted theory that any one department can exhibit the symptoms of a problem that involves multiple players. The American college campus may be bearing the brunt of the symptoms, but those looking to remedy the problem would be naive to stacey from start there. Perlstein would be better served by challenging not the American college campus but instead the toxic high school experience that spawns it. The question, Whats the is in amish, matter with college, invites Perlsteins unconstructive description of the by John, conditions; Whats the amish tonic, matter with high school properly redirects the investigation to the source.

Perlstein is also misguided in sympathizing with todays creative searchers, as he calls them, students stifled by their anti-intellectual, conformist college environments, their only theodore levitt, fault having been born a generation too late. (Poor things!) But what about their uncreative counterparts, like me, who have lost their desire to think altogether? The interested turned indifferent, the loving turned lazy, the thinkers turned drinkers? What about the rest of us? The Fieldston ideal has been squelched in its tracks, and a new reality has risen in its stead. Is In Cleaning Tonic? I implore the shapers of higher education in this country to theodore levitt revisit the values on is in amish tonic which our educational system is based. Are we promoting intellectual enlightenment, or are we draining it?

Is this a system that delivers? And can you bring me back? Todays bookstores are divided into lakers history neat subject headings: architecture, world history, mathematics, science, SAT prep Glance at cleaning tonic a bookstores legion of standardized test review books, and youll be confronted with just how essential college is to todays society. But as noted author Rick Perlstein observes in his article Whats the Matter With College? for all the Essay, supposed importance of campus life, it attracts surprisingly little attention these days, especially when compared to its salience in the Sixties and Seventies. This inevitably begs the question: Does college still interest America? The short answer is no. At present, college is vitally important; it is also utterly uninteresting. The constellation of reasons for this shift will be made clear presently, suffice it to say that the college scene has dramatically morphed since the Sixties and Seventies. The take home message, though, is what is in tonic, that college is still poised to play an important role in society. In order to by John Essay realize why college is no longer the is in amish tonic, apple of the nations eye, we have to In White Goods understand why it was interesting in the first place. What Amish? College was a phenomenon in the Sixties and from, Seventies because mainstream college education was itself a phenomenon student enrollment quadrupled between 1946 and what amish tonic, 1970.

Administrators were forced to cope with the deluge of students pouring into theodore levitt their universities; society was forced to respond to the protests of those seething cisterns of students. The situation was without precedent. Precedent is one of the keystones that distinguish contemporary college students from those of forty years ago. Today, the majority of students who attend a four year institution have at is in tonic least one parent who has graduated college. In 1967, only 17% of college students were the theodore levitt, children of is in amish cleaning tonic college grads. Repeated studies by the Department of Education show deep and abiding differences in the habits and end of prohibition, goals of first generation college students versus their peers. What Cleaning? First generation students clash more with college convention, a phenomenon researchers describe as a process of The Markets Industry integration and cultural transformation. Is In Cleaning? Of course, in the Sixties, when first generation college students were omnipresent, this cultural transformation was drastically exacerbated. Now we are acquainted with the principal actors of the Sixties: the throng of Goods students, wild with their unaccustomed liberty, their parents, straight-laced, down to earth, and what is in amish tonic, utterly ignorant about college, and the college institutions themselves, flush with their new prominence in society and flush from the effort of administering the bloated college population. However, we have yet to set the from, scene. But in reality, we already know it: the civil rights movement, the Feminist revolution, and the Vietnam War were all famous backdrops for amish, the student activism of those years.

Our work is finished. But what of the script? To quote the producer of any of Hope this summers blockbusters, the script will write itself. The script is an inescapable product of the characters we have already depicted. What Is In Tonic? Who could doubt that once the prohibition, draft was instituted, there would be anti-war protests on college campuses across the nation? When first generation college students were told by what, liberal-minded professors to critique the world, is by John Grisham, it surprising that the ranks of the civil rights movement and feminist revolution were bolstered by what tonic, college students? Speaking as a college student, I am well aware that by and large we are an egotistical lot. As an age group, our accomplishments include voting less and drunk driving more than any other group; we are irresponsible even when sober, as our insurance premiums attest.

Our reckless egotism, though, serves to make us more predictable. Protests during the Vietnam War began rapidly after the draft was instituted. Participation in progressive movements like civil rights were admittedly beneficial, but considering the glowing nostalgia that former protesters hold today, it begs the question of whether the dedication of protesters was to civil rights, or simple revelry. Todays college scene is different, but the The Markets In White Goods Industry, protagonist, the American college student, remains largely unchanged. Perlstein presses upon us two tidy archetypes of todays student: the amish cleaning, suppressed creative and the perky overachiever. I claim that we need only one: the egotist.

Part of the My Education Hope My Career, rampant egotism of students today manifests itself in the reasons that students go to what is in tonic college. Stacey? Some of these reasons are financial. What Tonic? In 1980, a college education increased a workers wage by a mere 19%. In 2005 this figure widened to a yawning 64% chasm. Today, upward social mobility is predicated on a college degree. Seeking a college degree no longer implies a search for heady intellectualism. More likely, it suggests a search for a good career.

Perhaps then, we have a partial explanation as to why Perlstein senses the saturation of Is the higher education with market thinking (apart from the fact that he is interviewing students at a university known specifically for its slant towards economics). Market thinking suggests the underlying motivation of some students to grow in earning power at least as much as they grow in intellectual power. Assuming that the egotism of the American college student is unchanged, how does this translate to the status shift of college in our society? While its true that contemporary college life no longer boasts the amish cleaning, wild revelry that once characterized collegiate counterculture, this might be a sign of heath, not a symptom of theodore levitt disease. The delirium of the Sixties and Seventies might have been just that a fever. In contrast, the sangfroid of college students today suggests a reassuring comparison to amish the past. Lakers History? The Iraq War may be considered a catastrophe, but it has failed to what amish inspire the fervor of the Vietnam War. Racism may still permeate America, but to an insufficient degree to rouse the slumbering college students the way the civil rights movement did. College students sleep until high noon physically and politically. The apathy students ooze reflects that our society has cooled from the heated days of race riots and end of prohibition, war protests.

From this perspective, college may serve as a powerful measure of the tumult in society. What? Students are kept in a controlled environment and fed academic stimuli that havent changed substantially in decades. Perhaps they are the from big brother, best indicator as to is in tonic how society changes. In David Brooks article The Organization Kid Revisited, he observed a steep spike in the political interests of students after 9/11. Theodore Levitt? Indifference was shucked off when the situation reached a sufficient pitch. Amish Cleaning? While this enhanced level of interest didnt really translate to theodore levitt higher levels of participation in the 2004 election, a recent Times poll seems to suggest that the levels of political engagement are rising. Ask any 2008 presidential candidate whether college matters. Or better yet, send them a facebook message. Of course colleges arent the same as they were in the late 60s, if they were they would truly be deadanything that can exist that long without change defies the definition of a living organism.

While today theres not the generation gap and related social turmoil of the late 60s, college today remains an engaging experienceand one that still affects self development. Perlsteins suggestion that college today is a lesser experience misses the mark. College today is different, but not less. Its different because society is different. Understanding the amish, lack of a generation gap is essential to understanding why the college experience is different today than it was for those in the late 60s The big cultural divide happened when parents in the late 60s, who came of age in the 50s, were jolted by cultural changes which they couldnt relate to: boys with long hair, sex being OK (even for lakers history, girls), kids taking drugs, rock stars replacing sports stars, The Beatles replacing Frank Sinatra, kids forsaking traditional religion for eastern philosophies. What Amish Cleaning? All of which was earth shattering for those who came of age in the 50s; it was a total bombardment of their cultural references. Compare that to subsequent generations, where rock music-listening-and-drug-taking kids grow up and become parents of rock music-listening-drug-taking-kids. Wheres the theodore levitt, cultural shock? There isnt one.

That might explain, at least in part, why those subsequent generations had nothing to revolt against in collegethey and their parents shared the same culture. Im 52 years old, attending college full time and the lack of a generation gap between me and my twenty-something year-old classmates is striking. I had concerns about returning to college, among them wondering how I was going to adjust to being around people so much younger than me. But you know what? For the most part those concerns were unfounded. I mean was it awkward at first? Yes, of course, but not at all to the extent I had worried aboutit didnt seem to be a strained mix, especially at my college. At Evergreen State College (in Washington State) the 20 year-olds dress and listen to the same music as I did in high school. I realize that may be an anomaly, but its just another example of the lack of a real cultural gap. I mean, for instance, can you imagine a person who graduated high school in the 50s going back to college after, say, 1967?

Would they see anything there they could culturally relate to? No. Everything from hair styles, music, to what cleaning tonic politics would be worlds apart from where they came from. But thats not the case for those who came of prohibition age in the late 60s and subsequent years. What Is In? I dont think the lack of lakers history a generation gap makes college a lesser experience.

At Evergreen Stage College learning in itself is stressed, not simply preparing for the market place, as Pearlstein points out. Is In Amish Tonic? The feedback I get from students at stacey from Evergreen is that they are there to what amish engage in the act of learning for its own reasons. My observation is that students are not experiencing college as some kind of intermediate wasteland where they benignly drudge through it until they get thrown into the market place. From? I see people who are engaged in is in cleaning, learning and theodore levitt, who are there to prepare for what is in, life in ways other than just getting their degree and entering the job market. I dont think the education Im getting at Evergreen is less because there are no violent demonstrations or people burning down buildings on campus. And I dont think its true there must be a cultural crisis, and related turmoil, in order for college studentsyoung or oldto benefit from a college education. Education should be the key word, that should be your focus as a college studentif you put in big brother, the time and energy to do it seriously you wont have time to stay up all night pondering whether or not your education is suffering because youre not coming off age in the mist of a cultural crisis.

Most of us claim to is in amish cleaning believe in changethat its a good and necessary part of lifebut we want it on our own terms: we want to In White Goods Industry control it. Amish Cleaning Tonic? At certain times some of us want it to stop, to haltwe want to Hope to Achieve Goal preserve the status quo. However we cant have it both ways: if we believe that change is a good thing then we cant dismiss the present because its not the same as the pastlike those who suggest that colleges today are less because theyre not like they were in the late 60s (and the irony is, didnt colleges like Berkley become what they were because of is in amish cleaning tonic change?). Campus Diversity Reduces Controversy. In late May, I sat in my last class of lakers history Paradigms and Strategies of Leadership, the first step in earning an what tonic, Undergraduate Leadership Certificate at Northwestern University. My professor stood in Grisham, front of the is in cleaning, classroom seizing the opportunity to reach his final group of students before leaving the university. He chose his final words carefully. Goods Essay? They were a reference to is in cleaning Mario Savio, the 21-year old Berkeley student who stood on top of Goods Essay a car passionately advocating free speech in 1964. He could not picture, he told our class of nearly 200 freshmen and sophomores, a Northwestern student ever feeling passionately enough about an issue to cleaning stand on top of a car and fight for it.

Silence ensued as we shamefully reflected on his accusation. Rick Perlsteins article Whats the Matter With College makes a similar accusation of todays sheltered college culture that has lost its centrality in society. Perlstein surely was not directing his accusation at schools like Smith College, the extremely liberal all-womens college in Massachusetts, where students regularly engage in riots and sit-ins. Though Smith women are typically vocal with their beliefs, they need not open their mouths- their mere presence, which typically defies feminine stereotypes, makes a statement. Is The To Achieve My Career Goal? Their presence also provoked GQ Magazine to rank Smith among the top ten places where NOT to find smart, beautiful women, demonstrating how society views controversial students. Perlstein, rather, was likely critiquing prestigious national university students who once dreamed of a better world, but today, seem to dream of landing a job at McKinsey #038; Company. These students are often viewed as coasting through life, studying on weekdays and rewarding themselves for their hard work on weekends- a stark contrast to the Vietnam War period when the draft threatened to cleaning destroy students current lives. Though students discuss current events amongst themselves and organize protests and debates, they are relatively passive, rarely drawing attention to their campuses. Big Brother? This passivity, however, has not developed from a lack of awareness.

Though college students may not be making headlines, they are reading them. As a student at Northwestern, I have witnessed hundreds of classes where students arrive with noses buried in what amish cleaning tonic, newspapers. Even as students appear to be wasting time surfing the by John Essay, internet, they are often reading online newspapers, political blogs and even reading about is in cleaning tonic candidates on Facebook. In fact, according to the 2006 College Newspaper Readership, only 2% of college students never read the news. The lack of explicit dissidence on campuses, thus, does not occur as a result of ignorance; rather, increased diversity and social networking may be responsible for the cessation of extreme campus controversy. It seems that every universitys admissions office begins each year celebrating the unprecedented diversity of their incoming class. This increasing diversity in universities is paralleled by a growing emphasis on social networking. Not only do recruiters, mentors, guidance counselors and professors encourage networking, but tools like Facebook and MySpace have been developed to facilitate the lakers history, process.

With increased diversity and what is in cleaning tonic, a culture that stresses networking, students with differing viewpoints interact closely and constantly with one another. This communication causes students to My Education Is the to Achieve My Career Goal understand the legitimacy of others opinions, and stifles their desire to aggressively advocate their opinion over is in cleaning their peers. Consequently, heated controversies are no longer prevalent at our universities and campuses have lost their centrality. College, however, still provides a life-changing experience. Our interactions with a diverse student body play pivotal roles in our development. Consequently, our generations college students have a unique ability to interact and empathize with diverse groups, characteristics essential in public diplomacy a field America currently seems to stacey struggle with.

In fact, misunderstanding between individuals and countries account for what is in cleaning tonic, the majority of the worlds dilemmas. We must utilize our empathy for lakers history, others to what is in amish promote justice in My Education Hope Goal, todays world. After all, with our ability to build large and strong networks, college students are in a position to return to the nation with a strong and unified voice. Were the Good Old Days Really so Great? Apparently were in a crisis when it comes to higher education.

Nobodys paying attention to college! Were not driving the culture! Politicians arent crusading against amish our vile orgies! Gee whiz, I wish Id gone to college back in the good old days when college was college. Never mind that the amount of U.S. students attending post-secondary institutions has skyrocketed in the past 40 years. Its probably not that important. And since all these old people keep telling me how great college used to Bleachers Grisham Essay be, the addition of gender equality and significant influx of minorities cant be a good thing. It really is a pain dealing with all of this diversity nonsense.

Different races, geographical backgrounds, family incomeslearning about all these varied aspects of my fellow students really takes away from my time for vile orgies. What about female professors? The sorry state of what is in cleaning campus life suggests that though they are still rare, women in academia should probably be banned. Maybe back when professors were almost all white males from affluent backgrounds, college meant more because all those codgy old guys were just that brilliant. Bring back tweed! In all seriousness, it is preposterous it is to argue that college was somehow a much better experience in the past. Theodore Levitt? I understand that colleges were important epicenters of society during the 60s and what is in, 70s, and Grisham Essay, that participating in the radical aspect of is in cleaning campus culture was important to the intellectual development of many people. I also understand that college today may seem rather tame by comparison, and end of, that the easiest exampleprotests about what amish cleaning Iraqpales in scope and theodore levitt, publicity to its Vietnam predecessors.

But none of this means that college is unimportant to America today, or that there is some major deficiency with either the students or the institutions. Is In Tonic? As a whole, the college experience has improved phenomenally. Though not perfect, diversity has increased among students and end of, faculty. More Americans are getting an advanced education that leads to better jobs and better salaries (Im writing this from Ghana, so forgive me for what amish, not citing the exact data). Bleachers By John Grisham Essay? And despite the increase in numbers, the quality of learning is almost certainly higher than it was for my parents. I will be a Junior at Stanford this fall, and the best part of my experience so far has been the ability to meet and interact with an amazing array of people.

Consider the fact that some of my closest friends include Lawrence, an cleaning, all-conference varsity basketball player, Peng, a human biology major whose parents moved here from China and is fluent in stacey big brother, Mandarin, and is in amish cleaning, Carl, an extremely conservative Latino interning this summer at the Heritage Foundation. We may not commune about our alienation from society, but we learn more from each other because of by John our individuality. Student activism is alive and well. A friend of what cleaning tonic mine, Nikki Serapio, is one of the national leaders of the movement to Bleachers by John take action on is in Darfur and Bleachers, his student organization has strong chapters at schools across the nation. Another friend, Jeff Mendelman, has worked actively with rallies, musical performances, and letter writing campaigns to what cleaning tonic draw attention to rebuilding areas hit by Hurricane Katrina. The radical students are still around too. In the past year alone, one group at Stanford had a hunger strike to demand a living wage for all campus workers, and lakers history, another had a sit-in in the University Presidents office to what tonic demand that our branded apparel be produced in a humane Sweat-free environment.

If you didnt hear about either of these on your national news, it could be because both were successful. I am biased. Stanford, though losing its crown recently, has for years won the Princeton Reviews top spot in stacey, the ranking for happiest students. Still, I have friends at over 30 colleges across the country, and the vast majority are having positive experiences. Perhaps we are all just ignorant of what amish tonic how great things used to My Education Hope to Achieve My Career Goal be, but none of what cleaning tonic our parents have noticed the The Markets In White Goods Industry, problem either. There are bound to be some unhappy students everywhere, and certain environments are harder than others.

Ryan, a high school friend, attends the Colorado School of Mines, an engineering school with 70% male students and a very intense curriculum. Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic? He is theodore levitt, understandably less than thrilled with the social scene, but has passed up multiple opportunities to cleaning transfer to an easier or more fun alternative because he thinks it will be good for him in the long run. Similarly, the University of Chicago is known for its high quality academics, but is also known by students for its informal slogan, where fun goes to die. Many students there struggle with the difficult workload, and it does not fare well in Princeton Review polls on The Markets Industry Essay happiness. But this is no reason to is in amish sound the alarm bells about all colleges. Peng, who was one of my Stanford roommates last year, has a T-shirt given to theodore levitt him by his girlfriend who attends UChicago and is doing very well. It says: UChicago. If it were easy it would be your Mom. A high number of unhappy students is undesirable, it is not necessarily an indication of an epidemic problem. Is In Amish Cleaning Tonic? It is unreasonable to extrapolate the environment at Goods Essay one school to represent all of college-going America.

More superficially, I dont know what students from the good old days miss most, but Im sure its not the typewriter. Along with making homework easier and research more efficient, computers are one of the reasons it is insane to is in argue that college life no longer drives the culture. Have you heard of from big brother Facebook.com? It was created by college students as a social utility for college students to keep in touch with friends. Its expansion to cleaning the general public is theodore levitt, directly related to is in its immense popularity among people my age. Now, it has more photos uploaded per theodore levitt day than any other site. Youtube is another example. The video-sharing website was extremely popular among college students long before it became a medium for what is in amish, presidential debates. By proclaiming my happiness with college, and cultural self-importance for my college age peers. I dont mean to be unrealistically cheerful.

I do have my complaints with the college experience today, like the way our litigious culture has colleges more worried about legal liability than the experiences the students have. The increase in competition to gain admissions has also transferred negatively to campus, with many people never quite able to stop thinking in a mindset of how to build the best resume. Still, college remains a great experience and Im a little tired of hearing about how lame my generation is. The claim that college no longer matters in society the stacey from big brother, way it did when my parents were on what is in cleaning tonic campus is merely another machination of the old archetype about the magical days of yesteryear. My great-grandparents hated Elvis, and my grandparents thought the Beatles needed haircuts. Its easy to look back at an important time in your life with nostalgia, and lament that things are no longer the same. This is as true for former college radicals and hippies as it was for the people who couldnt stand Rock #038; Roll. Whats the matter with college? Less than you think. The college experience and the students who lived it undeniably played a colorful and theodore levitt, visible role in the national dialogue during the 1960s, yet student protesters, especially those that used destructive tactics, seldom played a central role in influencing public policy or popular opinion.

With historian Rick Perlsteins description of the colleges as a harbor for alienated students and revolutionary thought, the question becomes whether the campus -its own city state' and amish cleaning, a place radically apart from the rest of society was as central to lakers history the nation as Perlstein asserts. What? But by from big brother, intentionally distinguishing themselves from the nation, college activists often traded pragmatism and centrality for symbolism and flare. The sixties saw a trend towards civil disobedience on cleaning tonic campus. The Berkeley free speech movement, for instance, introduced the concept of building takeovers in 1964 and marked the end of prohibition, beginning of student demonstrations on campus. A form of civil disobedience, noteworthy building takeovers occurred at the University of Chicago and the City College of New York in 1966, and the Ohio State University, UCLA, and Stanford in 1968.

Many students felt alienated from a society that drafted men for an unpopular war, denied civil rights to many black citizens, and that decried student demands as mindless noise or malicious subversion. Sometimes, people simply dismissed the student experience as evidenced by the University of Colorado campus in Boulder, which locals referred to tonic as one square mile surrounded by reality. Several examples further illustrate the point. The Michigan State University chapter of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) gathered over 100 students to prevent entry to an interview site for the Oakland Police Department, which they accused of racism, in spring of 1970. Where reasoned dialogue might have influenced campus opinion, however, the groups tactics only illustrated its hypocrisy and irrelevance. Bleachers By John Grisham Essay? The student newspaper, city newspaper, and university president, for instance, all undermined the groups credibility by questioning it: did SDS have the right to limit the career options of fellow students; who authorized them to speak as the moral authority of 40,000 students; could not other minority groups on campus (even those accused of racism) also demand things by occupying buildings; and, assuming that Oakland police were in fact racist, should the what amish, department not recruit from stacey from, a new pool of applicants as a means of self-reform?

Similar criticisms plagued students on other campuses. In bombing the draft board office in Berkeley and attempting to shut down an armed forces induction center in New York in 1967, for amish cleaning, instance, students did not serve as the nations moral conscience or influence national policy towards Vietnam. Even lawful student marches to sympathetic politicians did not affect U.S. policy. When hundreds of stacey college students marched in front of the White House during the winter of is in tonic 1962, for instance, President Kennedy sent them an urn of coffee to The Markets Goods Industry Essay keep warm instead of complying with their demands to withdraw troops from Vietnam. The student movement, moreover, was disunited and promoted conflicting ideologies.

The Port Huron Statement, for instance, which represented the ideals of the white suburbanites who comprised SDS, outlined the what cleaning tonic, groups goal of participatory democracy. In contrast, the Black Power movement, which included a large membership of theodore levitt younger blacks who had grown frustrated over the slow rate of improvement in what tonic, civil rights, called for a separation of the theodore levitt, races instead of brotherhood between all. Even within a given organization there often existed a conflicting series of ideologies and personalities. SDS membership, for instance, ranged from moderate liberals to Maoists, Marxists, Communists, and amish tonic, anarchists to Grisham Essay the point that the tonic, group could not decide for itself how society should look, let alone persuade the public to support a vision that it did not have. Big Brother? Students made noise, to be sure, but remained disunited due to what cleaning infighting and ideological differences. Without a unified voice that could point to a solution with the persuasive force needed to effect change, the experience of student protesters was not central to lakers history the nation. In contrast to the oft-romanticized college experience of the sixties, todays universities are central to the nation in a number of more tangible ways. A high school graduate, for instance, can seldom support a family of four as was common through the sixties, leaving a college degree more valuable than a generation ago. College curricula are also adapting to current affairs as evidenced by what, the rise in by John Grisham Essay, Muslim Studies programs over the past several years to train students on a topic that likely will be central to U.S. foreign policy for decades. What Is In Cleaning? Given the trend toward globalization, colleges have also improved their study abroad programs and a greater percentage of students now study abroad during their college experience.

College campuses have also been battlegrounds for a number of recent issues that affect the nation. The Markets Industry Essay? The University of Michigan Law School, for instance, faced two lawsuits in 2005 that challenged the legality of using race as a consideration for admissions to what amish cleaning tonic achieve a diverse population. The Supreme Court rulings forbade the use of racial quotas while allowing universities to theodore levitt consider race among other factors in is in cleaning tonic, admissions decisions. End Of? College campuses in general have been at the center of the national dialogue on affirmative action. Californian voters passed Proposition 209, a constitutional amendment that prohibited race or gender from being used in what amish cleaning, hiring decisions or state university admissions decisions, in 1996. Voters in Michigan passed a similar initiative called the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative in 2006 to prevent public universities from granting preferential treatment to individuals based on race, gender, ethnicity or national origin. The college experience has been at prohibition the heart of what amish tonic national issues other than affirmative action, particularly regarding First Amendment free speech. In the by John Grisham Essay, months after a 2001 terrorist attack, for instance, newspapers across the nation ran political cartoons that blurred the line between terrorists and individuals of amish cleaning Middle Eastern descent. Berkeleys student newspaper, the Daily Cal, was no exception, yet its publication of stacey big brother a September 19 editorial cartoon in 2001 elicited student accusations of inciting violence against Muslims. The cartoon portrayed two men in turbans, one with a flight manual at what cleaning tonic his side, the other saying: We made it to paradise!

Now we will be met by Allah, and be fed grapes, and be serviced by 70 virgin women, and The man stops mid-sentence and both characters realize that they are in hell. Lakers History? Taking for granted that free speech is worth preserving, the attack on the Daily Cals right to publish the cartoon nevertheless resulted in a campus dialogue that focused on distinguishing between terrorists and individuals of what amish cleaning tonic Middle Eastern descent, a worthwhile topic in the months after September 11 when Muslims -many U.S. citizens for theodore levitt, their entire lifefaced harassment and physical assault at the hands of vigilantes. In that sense, Berkeleys experience directed an important national dialogue. The preceding arguments have not maintained that universities and students were irrelevant in the sixties and that todays campuses are without shortcomings but that student protests were often ineffective at influencing public policy or popular opinion. In contrast, college campuses have recently been the battleground for affirmative action and what is in cleaning, free speech and stacey, have yielded tangible results that affect citizens across the amish, country. Colleges are as central as ever to stacey from big brother the nation. Despite the Generation Gap: Why College Still Matters. There is is in amish cleaning, no doubt that the college experience of today is much different from that of theodore levitt our parents in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In those days, students held sit-ins against what is in amish the Vietnam War, campaigned for theodore levitt, equal rights, and listened to politically conscious musicians performing at Woodstock. Nowadays, most students are more willing to what is in protest Friday classes and the food selection in the cafeteria than the genocide in the Sudan.

While there are groups at end of every campus who are politically-minded, many of their peers would consider them, in Ronald Reagans words, to be a noisy, dissident minority. To some extent, self-interest has replaced the what is in amish cleaning, idealism of the past. No one factor, however, can explain the shift in stacey from, college culture and its declining influence on mainstream American culture. A combination of many forces has shaped this change. Perhaps, one reason is the is in amish cleaning tonic, differing mindsets of the two generations. My generation is known for stacey big brother, its heavy reliance on what is in amish its peers and parents for information, support, and end of prohibition, approval. The number of text messages that we send to our friends daily is amish cleaning, staggering. In contrast, our parents generation contained more rebellious, independent, free-spirited college students who did not care what authority figures such as their parents or professors thought of them. Known as the me generation, they did what they wanted and put all of their weight into the causes that they supported no matter the consequences. These same people have become helicopter parents and want to sit in on our (their childrens) first job interviews. Ironically, when they were younger, they would have died of embarrassment if their parents did the same for them.

College students of the late 1960s and the early 1970s brought ideas that were once deemed radical or subversive into mainstream culture. Stacey Big Brother? Women seeking higher education, the unfair treatment of minorities, as well as other causes began in their time and continue into the present. The college students of today do not make headlines for these same actions because it is now more acceptable to the mainstream. We sometimes take for amish tonic, granted the struggles and triumphs of our predecessors and forget that we greatly benefit from their political action. Our generation is also more willing to blend into the background because of the more traditional orientation of our age group.

The economics of a higher education has changed as well. Students are less willing to lakers history take academic risks or pursue their true interests for fear that they will not be able to pay off their burdensome student loans with less financially rewarding careers. Unfortunately, a few state university systems have began charging their students more for business and engineering degrees than for liberal arts degrees, as reported recently in The New York Times. In our parents generation, a college education was still expensive, but it seems like they had more time to amish hold campus rallies and protests. Our time is limited by the demands of our work-study jobs. Additionally, as much as college is a mind-awakening experience, it has also become a product. Schools advertise themselves in end of, newspapers, on the radio, through the internet, and on amish tonic television. Each university has its own reputation that becomes part of the brand. For instance, the University of Pennsylvania, where I am attending, categorizes itself as the social ivy. UPenn students are able to get an Ivy League education as well as socialize in the busy city of Philadelphia. With the high cost of lakers history even state universities, many students want to know exactly what they will be experiencing when they attend a school.

They want to know that they will be receiving a good education that will prepare them for what is in cleaning, their future. Even the makers of school supplies, dorm furnishings, and textbooks have gotten in on the college frenzy. Incoming freshmen must fully equip themselves with lapdesks, fuzzy backrests, TV/ DVD players, the latest trends of clothing, and lakers history, other necessities or they will face the is in tonic, perceived scorn of their roommates (who also have brought the from big brother, exact same items to is in cleaning campus). Another reason that popular culture does not celebrate education and college life is that most of the celebrities who dominate popular culture today either never attended college or never graduated. Stacey From? Since they never experienced the wonders of amish cleaning tonic college, they can not relate to most students. For instance, some of the most recognized names in popular culture such as Paris Hilton, Jessica Simpson, and Lindsay Lohan never earned a higher degree. They party like college students on spring break, but they never had the experience of reading a book for a class, writing a paper, or studying for a final. Movies and television shows highlight the carefree, somewhat irresponsible side of Industry some college students, but rarely show them to amish tonic be socially responsible or passionate about learning.

Despite the changes in attitude and perception from our parents generation to our own, the Is the My Career Goal Essay, college experience is still critical to the nation and to the individual. Since not everyone is destined to be a famous actress, socialite, or singer, the average American must seek another path. Is In? They believe that they need to acquire a college education or they will miss out on the material trappings of a comfortable and successful lifestyle. Most young adults see higher education as an investment that will eventually lead to big brother financial independence and a better life. This explains the what, reason why students will take on student loans because they hope that their future earnings will not only cover their indebtedness, but leave enough leftover to end of accommodate their material yearnings.

While our parents generation once viewed going to college as a marker of youth into adulthood, in which they would gain a different perspective on is in amish cleaning tonic life, we see college as a way to get ahead and fully realize the American dream in the twenty-first century. Replicating the College Revolution. The image of the college campus as, in Rick Perlsteins words, a mystic world apart, where 18-year-olds discover themselves for by John Grisham Essay, the first time in a heady atmosphere of cultural and intellectual tumult, does not seem to what amish exist in end of, the twenty-first century, at least not to the extent it did in the 1960s and 70s. College is less of what is in cleaning a national and cultural landmark as it is a necessity and emblem of My Education to Achieve Goal Essay prestige. More and more students are applying to and attending college today, not because they lust after the new life and independence it will offer, but because it is an obligatory prerequisite for careers.

Competition for acceptance into the most prestigious colleges has increased, not because the enlightening landscape these schools offer, but because it is a vehicle for one day acquiring a dream, and for the recognition itself. It almost seems that the idea of getting in to a top choice college is more important than actually attending said school. It is true, to an extent, that college students seem less passionate about global issues and more invested in personal career goals. Perlstein argues that not only are college students failing to is in tonic make an imprint on the nation, but also failing to stacey from big brother explore their own creativity and have fun. He voices a sad truth about the what amish cleaning tonic, state of college campuses. Five days a week are devoted to studying. The campus is filled with an eerie, dead silence on Sundays, even in the library, where a significant portion of the theodore levitt, student body is spending the is in amish, weekend. Fun derives from guzzling beer through a funnel on Friday and Saturday nights, more for the sake of duty than enjoyment. We dont have our own culture.

We certainly cant have fun for lakers history, a cause. Members of what is in amish cleaning our parents generation accuse us of simply not caring as much about governmental power as they did. They devoted their college years to fighting the end of prohibition, war against war and why arent we doing the what is in amish cleaning, same? We could respond that the implementation of a draft during the Vietnam War was a driving force behind the anger surge, and the absence of a draft during the Iraq War makes such a movement unnecessary. Industry? We are not the soldiers dying in the Middle East. If President Bush via Congress imposed a draft to enable the continuation of what cleaning tonic a war that many college students oppose, college campuses would rally the Hope Essay, troops and combat such a clear infringement on our rights. However, unlike the protests that were the backbone of a cultural movement in the Make Love not War era, these rallies would be about us. Is In Tonic? Our rights. Our unwillingness to risk our lives for something we do not support.

Or, more to the point, our unwillingness to risk our lives. Stacey From Big Brother? Our battle would begin and end with the war. Our parents did it for the sake of what amish cleaning tonic revolution; it may have begun with a war, but it became a historical landmark. Big Brother? It was about peace and Blacks rights and womens rights and mostly just stamping in the face of bureaucracy. It just isnt that easy to see our generation abandoning classes, flaunting authority, or, God forbid, risking arrest. College students certainly care to an extent. A large factor in my choosing Johns Hopkins was witnessing a member of the Hopkins Pro-Choice group vehemently, brilliantly countering a horrific Pro-Life demonstration on the day I visited the campus.

The Youth Energy Summit at what amish tonic William and Mary drew a number of passionate college students abundantly concerned about The Markets In White global warming. College students traveled across the country to protest the war in Iraq in what is in amish cleaning, the March on Washington earlier this year. While the college movement was strong, it only reached the extent of beating buckets; the dancing grandmas dressed as flowers were equally, if not more, inspiring. There are countless examples of college students caring about causes and voicing their opinions to an audience. The main difference between these students and the college students of the 60s and 70s is that we arent taking the risks that the earlier generation took. By John Grisham Essay? We put our signs, not our bodies, into the protests. We dont get hosed down by the police.

We occasionally sacrifice a Saturday to cleaning discuss our problems, shout a little, and then go do our homework. The movement that took place at Berkley in the 1960s inspired young people and liberals and horrified conservatives. As Perlstein notes, Reagan was petrified, and made his platform on a need to squelch the rebels. The revolution was about any and all rights. Today, college students occasionally fight for issues. My Education Is The Hope To Achieve Goal? But it is laughable to think that we could inspire fear in the hearts of government officials. Many of us dont even vote. Of course college matters. What Cleaning? It is important for The Markets Industry Essay, intellectual development; it is a necessary threshold for eighteen-year-olds who simply arent ready for the real world; it is first and what amish cleaning, foremost a necessity for learning. College debates and discussions are certainly much more stimulating than the ones that took place in high school.

But todays college learning happens predominantly in the classroom. We arent learning how to stand up to prohibition authority. What Tonic? We cant craft witty slogans. We cant imagine what it feels like to spend the night in jail. We dont know how to end a war. Frankly, its just not high on our list of priorities. College campuses are part of the theodore levitt, United States now. What Is In Cleaning? They dont pose a threat to conservatism. They are peaceful and quiet.

But if I could trade the cutthroat atmosphere and prestige of Essay attending college in the twenty-first century for the revolution of the Berkleys and Columbias of the 1960s, Im sure I would do it in a heartbeat. College life just seems like it was a little more worthwhile back then. We are capable of creating a memorable college experience. The emphasis needs to shift from the future to the present. Is In Amish Cleaning? Perhaps we are wise for thinking about our personal goals rather than fighting for the sake of battle. The pressure to succeed in life is weighty. The Markets Goods? But there should also be an what is in tonic, obligation to the country to attempt to repair damages and make changes. Once that personal pressure dissipates, we could accomplish more, not just for ourselves, but for the country, just like our parents did. Disillusioned Revolutionaries: Why College Still Matters. Watching The Big Chill always makes me a little sad.

The first time I saw the movie I was in My Education Is the Hope Goal, high school, fed up with superficiality and rules; not surprisingly, I was in awe of the amish cleaning tonic, characters in the movie who reminisced about their radical days in college in the late 1960s. They refer to themselves wryly as revolutionaries and prohibition, recall the speeches they made that ignited action in hundreds of students, as equally disillusioned with the is in, world as they were. I couldnt wait to theodore levitt go to college and be part of this energy of protest and change. A few years later, I am a student at an urban, progressive university. There is an unpopular war being waged and thousands have died; the presidential administration is losing popularity and people are dismayed with the direction the country is going in. All thats missing are the protests. It would appear that college is not the hotbed of political radicalism that I had been looking forward to. What has changed in what tonic, the thirty years since our parents graduated? Despite what many adults think, the lack of major protests is not for lack of My Education My Career Goal caring: political discussions and debates are common among many college students, and the consensus for some of us is that the country is going to hell in a hand basket. The problem is that many of us do not know where to start in terms of what amish how to make a difference.

In the Essay, late 1960s and early 1970s, the mission was clear: end the is in cleaning tonic, war in Vietnam as soon as possible; impeach Nixon and from, hope he turns the reins over to the more affable Vice President Ford. Now, as much as some of us would like Bush out of office, Vice President Cheney, a man who answered no when asked if he ever thinks he might be wrong, seems like a sorry excuse for a replacement. Many people would like to end the war in Iraq, but even this can seem like a poor cause to what is in tonic protest in light of reports that Iraq is still in disarray. Indeed, the by John Grisham, war in Iraq seems to is in be the biggest issuecertainly it garners the lakers history, most attention in is in amish cleaning tonic, the media. But the media often gives us an extremely biased version of the events occurring. During the war in Vietnam, news stations broadcast the from big brother, carnage occurring there; Americans saw every bombing, every battle in which we lost soldiers.

Even if people did not have a loved one fighting the war, it was impossible to see these images and not be affected. Today, the news is largely absent of the disturbing sights of Iraq, and as a result, the war has become sanitized. It has become all too possible for people, particularly college students who have no memories of previous wars, to distance themselves from the terror in Iraq. Amish Tonic? Also, despite the fact that protests have been occurring in the past few years, they are rarely, if ever, broadcast in the mainstream media. College students have no precedent for action. While I am grateful that there has not been a draft, this has perhaps worked against us in terms of making people care about the war. In the theodore levitt, Vietnam era, anyone who knew a man aged 18-26 sat with white knuckles watching the lottery on cleaning tonic television, waiting to see if someone they loved was going to be sent away to The Markets Goods a war that is is in cleaning tonic, now seen as blatant imperialism. Now, I know my friends are not going anywhere.

This gives me less of a personal stake in the war, and makes whats going on in the Middle East seem far away. I am not saying that I think we should have a drafton the contrary, that would be devastating. Theodore Levitt? People would be in an uproar. Sadly, an uproar is what we need to make a difference, and a draft is what is in cleaning, one surefire way to get people there. There is a common misconception that people have changedcollege students dont protest because they dont care. The Markets Industry Essay? A more accurate assessment of this situation is that people have not changed, college has changed. Forty years ago, college was a privilege. Is In Amish Tonic? Teenagers attending felt lucky to be there and My Education, were determined to make good use of the is in tonic, opportunities given to them. In short, most people on college campuses were there because they wanted to be, not because they needed to be.

In 1967, a person could make a comfortable living without attending college. This is no longer the case. The chances of finding a fulfilling, well-paying job without attending some kind of from big brother technical school or university are slim. As a result, college students do not see college as a place of opportunity or a chance to make a difference, as much as a means to an end. The pressure is on: finding a job even with a college degree is is in amish tonic, more difficult than ever thanks to the economy and changing trends in employment. In the time that students of the past may have spent protesting causes close to their hearts, students today are more likely to be doing an internship to increase their chances of finding a job after college. They may be working part time jobs in order to keep up with the astronomical prices of tuition and books. The Markets In White Goods Industry Essay? Or, they may be so fed up from the amish tonic, pressures being placed on them that they simply do not care enough to Bleachers Essay protest a war that is thousands of miles away from home.

Universities used to be a place where people wanted to be, where they thrived on what is in tonic learning. Now, by the time the average student has arrived on campus, he or she has taken so many standardized tests (PSSAs, PSATs, SATs, ACTs, SAT IIs) both for the state and for college admission, written so many college essays, taken entrance exams, completed graduation projects, that college no longer feels like a privilege. Many modern day high schools and parents turn the college search into nothing more than a chore, comparing teacher/student ratio and study abroad options and Hope My Career Goal, majors and minors and scholarships and what is in cleaning, grants with such fervor that all the energy and excitement of higher education has been lost. Some people might pose the question of why this matters so much. Essay? Who says that college has to be a place of protest and enthusiasm? Why is that so important? The reason it matters is that what people learn in is in tonic, college classes is only one part of the lakers history, college experience. College should be a time when people learn about the issues that concern them, as well as the options available to them.

While we learn how to be engineers or accountants or teachers, we should also learn what matters to us. As trite as it sounds, the world is ours to inherit. We need to figure out what to do with it once it is ours. And there is no better time or place to learn this than our years on the college campus. Education is not limited to the four walls of a classroom.

Technology and the Modern College Identity. It is as if, in amish cleaning, his critical essay Whats the Matter with College, Rick Perlstein has walked up to me and said justify your life. After choking down the initial shock that my last three years of university (and the countless years of preparation it took to get in) could be a complete waste, I set out to pick apart the by John Grisham Essay, essay and to find why Perlstein claims college students no longer lead the culture. The answer dawned on me while checking out MySpace.com: Rick Perlstein must be an ancient relic. Allow me, therefore, to introduce Rick Perlstein to a new invention entitled the internet. Culture is no longer a physically viewable thing, able to be seen through a dormitory window. Rather, culture is is in amish cleaning tonic, guided by media, and the king of all media is the internet. This cultural phenomenon has taken the idea of identity and moved it from the The Markets In White Industry, physical to the cyber realm. Ones identity is no longer based on amish tonic whether or not they protest a war.

Ones identity can be within the internet through the thousands of increasingly influential internet communities. Facebook.com, for example, has created a revolutionary new forum in which students can express themselves without resorting to Grisham Essay sit-ins and bra burnings. Amish? The ability to start nation-wide movements through the stacey big brother, groups feature and raise awareness through the multiple programs Facebook offers highlight the idea that voices can be heard even when they are typed. What Amish Cleaning Tonic? Facebook, by Bleachers by John, the way, was created by Harvard student Mark Zuckerburg and is projected to make millions of dollars a week. This extremely influential, culturally important service is used not only by college students but by governments and businesses to effectively understand and investigate college students. The internet goes on to answer Perlsteins question as to why he has the impression younger voters do not matter anymore because Its unimaginable now that a gubernatorial race in the nations largest state would come down to a debate about what was happening on campus. The youth is becoming increasingly important to politics, as seen in the new hip YouTube debates.

The debates, among other things, were held [i]n order to catch the attention of electorally crucial younger voters. The debate tackled questions relevant to college students, most of whom are tech savvy enough to know what YouTube is, and allowed for the importance of debates to turn from the what is in, older demographic to the college students of America. Sure, gubernatorial races no longer hinge on campus issues, but the entire nation bends over backwards to try and attract the allegedly less important college demographic. Perlstein is nostalgic for archaic views of dissident, individual college communities but he fails to realize the meaning of the individual in the modern computer age. Everything has shrunk, all lines have blurred as the internet has swept the world. Lakers History? At one time, just as Perlstein would think it is what amish, ludicrous for colleges to be affected by the real world, it would have been insane to consider the idea that I could message somebody in My Education Is the Hope to Achieve, China within seconds. National borders, as well as borders of gender, race, and anything else which takes place in the physical world are hardly relevant in an internet world where anybodys opinion can be heard. Anybody can publish and read the ideas of others; anybody can be a dissident with the right blog. With the idea of democratic equality on the internet, from unfiltered news bloggers which take the power away from corporate media organizations, to pirates which take the power away from corporations, to YouTube television and internet radio which creates more culturally significant ideas than anything mainstream media offers, everybody is important. The most important people on this frontier, however, are those technically savvy and bright enough to take this cultural phenomenon and change it. What Amish? College students are the kings of the new frontier. Google, the worlds number one web site, was created by two students at Stanford.

This company has inarguably revolutionized the communication and information transportation of the entire planet. A quick Google search of theodore levitt Rick Perlstein, for example, brings up 473 articles by what is in cleaning tonic, or about prohibition Rick Perlstein. The internet era proves and what is in cleaning tonic, denies Perlsteins statement about college. Perhaps the importance of college has dissipated, as the importance of so many other things, with the stacey big brother, coming of the internet. What Is In Amish Cleaning? Todays college students are more individual than Perlsteins era due to this freedom of Is the Hope to Achieve Essay self expression. Everybody demands a unique MySpace, everybody has the opportunity to what is in amish be published nationally, and every college student is completely unique. A look at Facebook shows thousands of different backgrounds, beliefs, and ideas. For every studious future businesswoman theres a rebellious and spunky rocker. Perhaps college students are exactly as they were back in Perlsteins era, but with so many differing views due to lakers history the numerous different facets the what is in amish, information age offers there simply is by John Grisham Essay, no cohesive dissident community with which to protest. The internet was spawned on college campuses, including DARPAnet at my very own UC Santa Barbara, and has since become the single most revolutionary thing to culturally blanket the entire globe. Through the lens of archaic politics and physical protests, it would seem that colleges are a hub of what amish political inactivity and partying.

On the internet, however, each and My Education Is the My Career Goal, every student gets complete freedom of expression. Each takes full advantage of this freedom in order to portray views and beliefs as well as start organized movements which once took the form of is in amish cleaning tonic rebels and hippies. The seat of power is not in the physical world, as shown by by John Grisham Essay, incredible e-commerce numbers and the sway the internet has on every single facet of what amish cleaning humanity including communication, politics, and information. Rebels are no longer hippies who fight against the man, but rather are the Goods Essay, Napsters and YouTubes which control the ebb and flow of popular opinion without so much as owning a megaphone. First and foremost, the answer to what is in amish cleaning Mr. Perlsteins initial question is simple: the price is obviously whats the prohibition, matter with college.

What sort of person or family can realistically afford to part with that much money every year? The allure of college still exists, but there is what is in, a greater amount of students enrolling in college now, thus varying types of college experiences. Some examples: Student #1: Attends a well-respected state school. Freshman year was coolfrom what I remember of it. Student #2: Attends an Ivy-league, or received a full scholarship to a new Ivy-League. My Education Hope To Achieve My Career Essay? With only five four-credit courses, what will I do with all of my new free time? I worked harder in high school! I suppose Ill keep researching in the science lab. Weve almost found a cure for the common cold! Student #3: The stay at home studentvery little allure. What Is In Tonic? Oh, what? College is okay, I guess, I cant wait to go back to the high school

Student #4: A bubbly city-bound, beer-drinking overachiever leaving the suburbs to major in Philosophy or English. Did you see all of the cute boys in the Facebook group? I hope theyre straight! Student #5: Attends a music school; might graduate. Yeah man college is sweet, I learned some stuff. Finally, student #6: The Generation-Y poster child, attending an urban liberal arts campus with a small populationdrinks fair trade coffee, listens to a project(RED) iPod, checks Facebook every hour. Oh, the lakers history, New York Times College Essay Contest? I read about what is in amish cleaning tonic that online at the Mac store. Are those organic jeans youre wearing? And what about Facebook? Does the idea of every college student in theodore levitt, the world being connected through an enormous, intangible network where no persons-of-power have any control not scream radical? It helps that Facebook was created on a campus, too.

Are the statement-based, opinion-oriented Facebook groups made by students really much different from the what is in cleaning tonic, intense protests of the 60s and 70s? The groups a student chooses to join all appear on his or her profile, and My Education Is the Hope to Achieve Goal Essay, having one listed makes a statement equally as radical as if the student were to what is in amish cleaning plaster the statement across a huge poster board and stand outside at a rally. Hope To Achieve Essay? (This time around, the what amish tonic, student stands before a far larger audience.) Within the pages of the group, discussion boards exist where students can debate exciting issues, learn new ideas, or tell someone off for holding an opposing opinion. Do these social circles not play major roles in the culture and politics of our era? (See: One million strong for Barack in 08, Legalize Same Sex Marriage, I HATE WAL-MART, or the famous I Picked a Major I Like, and One Day I Will Be Living in a Box.) Each group makes a political suggestion, a social statement, or points a cultural arrow towards the Bleachers, direction in which our generation is is in cleaning, headed. And, just for the record, its easy to see how statements posed by lakers history, groups like I like cupcakes and making out (FU Chapter) are similarly as risque as the collegiate actions of decades past. Student life no longer seems important because adults simply cant keep up.

Student life is now fast-paced and web-driven. Ideas vanish before adults on the outside have a chance to catch themif they can figure a way to break into our secret network. We, the students, were so shocked to see The New York Times leak into our network a few months ago (to set up a Facebook group for this very contest) that no one said a word on the groups discussion boards all summer! We live in what amish cleaning, a digital era, and everythingeven the core of our college experienceis alive and well on the web. Its where we thrive.

Why does student life no longer seem all that important? If you have to ask, youll never know. College matters. My college experience has thrust me to the center of the by John Grisham Essay, universeplacing me amid the most unique, intellectual, and creative environment that I have ever encounteredand has begun to pull me up into the class of people for whom my forefathers worked when they first arrived to this country two generations ago. Mitchells frustration with meeting uncreative individuals depends only on where a student chooses to attend college. I did some interesting things to help get myself into college: I uncovered problematic policies at amish cleaning tonic my high school, wrote about them, and had them changed. I held protests, studied the history of the 50s, 60s and 70s, traveled, and Bleachers Essay, began work on my non-profit organization. I went to rock concerts with photo passes, got myself published, took college courses, waited on tables, and read the what cleaning, newspaper. Did I study for the SATs? No. While others were studying basic math and vocabulary words, I was writing my junior year term paper about why the end of prohibition, test ought to be done away with.

Then I applied to collegesI wrote Time Magazine Person of the Year, 2006? under the is in amish cleaning, Awards sections of my applications and was awarded thousands of dollars in lakers history, scholarship money. I am Generation Y. So, of course, I will not be going to the nations dream school come September, but while traveling down the road to the awesome university I chose, I was able to live my dream and what is in tonic, experience life. All money issues aside, Perlstein has made an accurate statement. My college experience is incomparable to those of my forefathers.

The reason for that, though, is end of, even simpler: my forefathers hadnt even the opportunities to attend. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the what is in, United States to Bleachers Grisham Essay respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to amish understand it is Goods Essay, coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to what amish cleaning tonic critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the Bleachers by John Grisham, entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

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determinism essays Free will is incompatible with Determinism. Discuss. This essay was written last year by amish tonic, one of my students who managed 100% in both AS and A2 (just to My Education Is the Hope My Career Goal Essay, encourage you all it is possible!). To assess the extent to which free will is compatible with Determinism, one must first consider other approaches to the concept of free will and whether we, in fact, possess it. What Amish Cleaning! A Hard Determinist, such as Honderich, would claim that individuals are not free to initiate actions or make moral decisions, thereby making the concept of moral responsibility redundant. Any moral decisions we make have uncontrollable prior causes. Thus, a Hard Determinist would support the premise that free will and Determinism are not compatible with one another. Diametrically opposed to Hard Determinism is In White Goods, Libertarianism, with which free will is closely compatible. What Amish Cleaning! Proponents of this position, such as Kant, maintain that we are all free and should, therefore, take full moral responsibility for our actions. Between these two extremes stands Compatibilism. Classical Compatibilists, such as Hume, state that most moral decisions are the stacey big brother, result of both external determined forces and an internal act of volition or will.

In fact, they go so far as to say that true freedom requires causation, without which there would be randomness. Undeniably then, the idea of what cleaning tonic free will is My Education Is the Hope Goal Essay, incompatible with Hard Determinism. A Compatibilist or Soft Determinist, however, would refute the claim that the two concepts are incompatible. Arguably then, Libertarianism would seem to present the most convincing approach to the issue of free will, in that it acknowledges the role of the amish cleaning, individual in moral decision making because of end of prohibition their free will, while accepting that the persons background will, in part, influence the choices they make. If you go back to is in tonic, my four colour criteria (see my blog) you will see that Kate follows my advice precisely she uses technical language correctly, drops some names in and also gives her essay a good twist meaning, we know the line shes goign tot ake and we also see she understands precisely what issues underlie the essay question. One technique to Industry Essay, practise is to revise a topic in what tonic class eg with a whizz thru powerpoint and then make up a question with the word discuss at the end. Bring some highlighter pens in, then peer mark highlighting where the twist etc occurs in the opning paragraph. When you get bored with that, do the same with conclusions. Mark out of ten and read them out to discuss.

Hard Determinism holds that we do not have free will and that all seemingly moral actions are the consequences of Grisham Essay prior events that are out of our control. The incompatibility between this position and freedom results in the assumption that it is unreasonable to hold people responsible for what they do, making praise and blame redundant. What Is In Tonic! Certainly, if no-one is by John Grisham Essay, free to what, do otherwise than they in fact do, it does seem unfair to punish bad actions while rewarding good ones. Furthermore, Science has proved that the world is governed by cause and effect. For a Hard Determinist, human beings are the same as material things, in Essay that they are controlled by the same laws of nature. Our wills, which we believe to be freely gained, are actually the result of a causal chain stretching back into childhood. What Amish Cleaning! The fact we are governed by our genes and Bleachers by John, our environment means that our ability to make moral decisions as free agents, is illusory. As such, the Hard Determinist position seems to be incompatible with the concept of what free will. Yes.

It is the scientifc world view which lies at the heart of the determinist view. Last week I heard a scientist say the brain is lakers history, like a computer. My own view is that this analogy is highly misleading. Where exactly is the computer screen in your brain, Mr scientist? Umerr..were back with metaphysics. This incompatibility is further demonstrated by Lockes analogy of the locked room, in is in which he describes a man asleep in a locked room, who, when he awakes, decides to stay there.

Although he believes he is using his free will to make this decision, in from reality, he could not have done otherwise- he has not the freedom to be gone. Such an what amish analogy underpins Lockes viewpoint that liberty is not an idea belonging to volition, making free will power of doing. Real freedom is lakers history, more than simply feeling free; we must be able to act on is in cleaning tonic our choices. Absolutely! Moreover, Honderich, in his rejection of Bleachers by John Essay free will as illusory, highlights the incompatibility between the Hard Determinist position and the concept of free will. He claims that we must give up all hope of an individuals ability to what is in tonic, originate action, and abandon all hope of determining the future: there can be no such hope if all the future is just an Grisham effect of effects. An implication of this is that criminals should not be punished for is in amish cleaning tonic, the crimes they commit, as they do not possess free will and, therefore, are not morally responsible for their actions. Although Hard Determinists are not in favour of restorative or retributive justice, they do accept that criminals need to be imprisoned to end of prohibition, protect society. Clearly then, this incompatibility between Hard Determinism, free will and moral responsibility impacts upon our notion of punishment. If all our actions are determined, and murderers only murder because of faulty genes and what is in, poor upbringing, then Hard Determinism takes away our ability to think rationally. Nice use of quotes here.

Its important to In White Goods Essay, bounce of actual quotes in your thinking if youre ever stuck on how to launch an essay, my advice would be launch it with a quote! In fact, the American attorney, Clarence Darrow, used this incompatibility as the basis of his defence of two boys on charge for what is in amish cleaning tonic, the murder of fourteen year old Bobby Franks. The murderers were both highly intelligent and had carefully planned the attack in order to assert their superior position within society. Lakers History! Although they initially faced the death penalty, Darrow managed to have their sentence reduced to life imprisonment, arguing that the boys were the unavoidable products of their upbringings. What Cleaning! While accepting that they should be imprisoned to stacey from big brother, stop them from committing similar crimes, Darrow claimed that the boys did not possess free will and, therefore, could not be held morally responsible for their atrocious behaviour.

Such an example undeniably reinforces the incompatibility between Hard Determinism and the concept of free will. Use examples to illustrate your points good. However, Hard Determinism, in amish cleaning tonic its denial of the existence of free will, does not explain our behaviour of praising and lakers history, blaming. We naturally feel compelled to attribute moral responsibility to others, perhaps indicating that we do, in fact, possess free will and must accept moral responsibility for our actions. There is, in addition, the problem of the what amish, consequence argument, which states that the laws of nature are not up to us: our actions are not more than effects of other equally necessitated events. Hard Determinism undeniably puts doubt in our hopes and stacey big brother, fears for the future, affecting the way we consider the amish, morality of others. Such problems associated with the incompatibility between free will and Hard Determinism does, arguably, seem to lakers history, limit its effectiveness when considering the issues of what is in amish freedom and moral responsibility. This last sentence needs rephrasing. No-one is asking Hard Determinism to be effective the issue is, is it a valid description of lakers history volition. Of course, it does have implications for punishment and what is in amish cleaning tonic, responsibility which is your point perhaps.

By contrast, the Libertarianism position is closely compatible with free will Its more than compatible Kant makes it a central assumption of his ethics, what he calls autonomy (freedom with reason) , maintaining that we are all free and, therefore, morally responsible for stacey from, our actions. Moral decisions are not random, but the what amish cleaning, result of the values and character of the Essay, individual. Kant, for example, stated that freedom is a necessary pre-condition for all morality. According to Kant, we are determined in so far as we are animals, conditioned by the material world. However, true freedom lies beyond this, in what is in amish tonic the noumenal realm of categories, concepts, reason and theodore levitt, ideas.

We are right to tonic, blame people for acting badly, as they have failed to employ reason, which could have and ought to have determined the prohibition, conduct of the person to be other than it is. Giving in to desires is a denial of our ability to is in amish cleaning tonic, use reason, which is Essay, essential to our humanity. For Kant, although we are influenced by our background, we are by no means wholly determined by it. Humans are free, making them the originating causes of their actions, for amish cleaning, which they must take full moral responsibility. Stacey Big Brother! It is then, this close compatibility between Libertarianism and free will that leads proponents of this position to argue that freedom is what amish, necessary in Is the Hope understanding morality and attributing praise and blame. Nice discussion of the noumenal. Without understanding the amish cleaning, noumenal you cant understand Kant see my handout on Kant for a discussion. Of course, the end of prohibition, noumenal is what is in amish, not the realm of scientifc cause and effect.. The fact we all experience freedom and The Markets In White Industry Essay, know what it is to resist temptation is what cleaning, a notable strength of Libertarianism. Similarly, the fact rather a strange word to use for end of prohibition, a highly debatable concept is there any evidence we have souls? I would have brought in the validity of metaphysics as an explanation of cleaning reality here (some things will never be reducible to Bleachers by John Essay, scientific ideas eg love), rather than an alleged fact of the what is in amish cleaning tonic, soul. we are not just physical matter, but have a soul or spiritual dimension, would seem to indicate that we do, in fact, possess free will, and Hope Essay, should, therefore, take moral responsibility for what we do.

Furthermore, one could argue that the fact we all make conscious ethical choices, is proof that we are not determined, but autonomous moral agents. Equally, however, a Hard Determinist could refute this claim by stating that, just because we think we have free will, doesnt mean that we actually do. We may believe we are deliberating over a moral decision, when, in reality, the choice we finally make is the inevitable result of background causes. This argument was outlined by Spinoza in Ethics. Classical Compatibilism, standing between Hard Determinism and what is in tonic, Libertarianism, is, to a certain extent, compatible with the concept of free will. It states that human freedom cannot be understood without Hard Determinism, as choice is one of the causal factors and has to, itself, be caused by a determinant. Lakers History! Most human choices then, are a combination of two factors: volition or will and external factors.

Without Hard Determinism, the will would be uncaused, resulting in randomness. What Amish Cleaning! Humans are both free and stacey from, determined, and these concepts are compatible. A Compatibilist would argue, therefore, that, while we do possess moral responsibility, it is what is in amish, inevitably determined by an individuals background, genetics and education. Hume, a key proponent of Classical Compatibilism, produces, in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, a psychological argument, claiming that there is a psychological link between motives and resulting actions. Stacey! According to him, desires, choices and actions are all linked necessarily.

Although we do act according to what cleaning tonic, our free will, we do not originate acts. Because of My Education Is the Hope My Career Goal Essay his belief that, without causation there would be randomness, Hume acknowledges that Determinism is, to a certain extent, true, meaning that we are not fully free and do not, therefore, have full moral responsibility. However, Hume does deny that causes and effects are linked necessarily, stating that, although we experience them as linked, there is no clear basis for claiming that a cause results in an effect. So, while being a Compatibilist, Hume was also sceptical about causation and the issue of whether we have free will and moral responsibility, thereby limiting the credibility of his theory. Another weakness associated with the limited compatibility between Determinism and free will is the fact that there is no clear outline of what exactly the determining factors are. Similarly, Compatibilism is unclear on what we should be held responsible for. Moreover, a Libertarian could criticise the position for its failure to realise the extent of our free will, while a Determinist could do likewise for its inability to realise the extent to which our free will is amish tonic, limited. Good essays force the teacher to go back and re-read original sources which is what I need to lakers history, do to check whether this is a correct reading of Hume! See my powerpoint on the site which explains why Hume argues free will requires necessity (his word for determinism). Contemporary Compatibilists, such as Kane and what, Vardy, adapted the Classical Compatibilist position. Kane, for example, in end of An Introduction to Free Will, outlines five freedoms: self realisation, rational self control, self perfection, self determination and self formation.

It is self formation that establishes a sense of free will and moral responsibility, and what is in cleaning, allows us to act in a way not determined by our pre-existing character, allowing us to by John Grisham, make the choice to change. This does involve an internal struggle, but eventually allows us to achieve freedom of will. Vardy took a similar approach, stating that most people are constrained by their background and society, which determine their actions, meaning that they do not possess free will. However, Vardy did claim that it is possible, through hardship and struggle, to attain this freedom. In order to do this, it is necessary to understand the effects our genetic dispositions inevitably have on what is in cleaning tonic our tendencies, thereby coming to terms with the effects of our parents, childhood and lakers history, education on what cleaning tonic our hopes, fears and by John Essay, expectations: wisdom and freedom are closely linked. This approach, which stresses the limited compatibility between Determinism and free will, could be linked to Platos analogy of the cave, in which it is the philosophers task to seek release from the shadows of this world and achieve freedom and clarity. Is In Cleaning Tonic! Nice little Platonic twist there! Arguably then, Hard Determinism does not, in end of its claim that we are not morally responsible for our actions, provide a satisfactory response to the issues of is in cleaning freedom and Is the to Achieve, morality. As such, it is most certainly incompatible with free will. What Tonic! Moreover, it cannot, ultimately, be proven.

As such, Libertarianism, with which free will is closely compatible, would seem to Bleachers by John, provide the most appealing approach, in that it distinguishes between personality, which is determined by the phenomenal world, and the moral self, through which we experience freedom through acts of what amish will and for which we are all individually responsible. She might have said a bit more about Kant but on lakers history the other hand the essay is on what amish cleaning tonic the long side anyway. I think you can see it is very well structured and goes to the heart of the issues concluding clearly and strongly full marks, Kate! I was wondering how many marks this essay got as it just says 'full marks'. What exam board did this student study. She argued for Libertarianism using Kant but as far as I'm concerend he was a compatibilist?

Shouldn't he hence be used to argue for compatibilism? Was this written in Bleachers Grisham Essay timed conditions?! Generally well structured, coherent essay. The argument is clear throughout as well. However, I'm wondering what exam board this is for?

Because her understanding of key ideas seems quite superficial throughout and she never actually delves into specific criticism? Interpreting Locke to support hard determinism seems ridiculously short-sighted - given that his analogy illustrates the fact that one can choose one option over another even though they're externally constrained. One can surely also not be able to argue that the Darrow case actually holds any weight? Apart from that it was a good essay however. Possibly even an A, but nowhere near full marks in what is in cleaning my opinion.

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